SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet

Issue Date: 2-Dec-2007

NC317TCP

CHEMWATCH 35008

Version No:8

Section 1 - CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION

PRODUCT NAME

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

PROPER SHIPPING NAME

HYPOCHLORITE SOLUTION

PRODUCT USE

Used in the bleaching of paper pulp and textiles, for the purification of water, in medicine, as a swimming pool disinfectant and laundering agent and as a fungicide and germicide. Also used in the manufacture of organic chemicals and as a chemical intermediate.
Intermediate

Section 2 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

STATEMENT OF HAZARDOUS NATURE

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE. DANGEROUS GOODS. According to NOHSC Criteria, and ADG Code.

CHEMWATCH HAZARD RATINGS

Flammability 0
Toxicity 2
Body Contact 4
Reactivity 2
Chronic 2
SCALE: Min/Nil=0 Low=1 Moderate=2 High=3 Extreme=4

 

RISK SAFETY
■ Contact with combustible material may cause fire. • Keep locked up.
■ Contact with acids liberates toxic gas. • Keep away from combustible material.
■ Causes burns. • Do not breathe dust.
■ Risk of serious damage to eyes. • Avoid contact with skin.
■ Very toxic to aquatic organisms. • Avoid contact with eyes.
■ Ingestion may produce health damage*. • Wear suitable protective clothing.
■ Cumulative effects may result following exposure*. • Wear suitable gloves.
■ Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect*. • Wear eye/ face protection.
■ Possible skin sensitiser*. • Do not empty into drains.
* (limited evidence). • To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use water.
• This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way.
• Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
• In case of contact with eyes, rinse with plenty of water and contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre.
• In case of accident or if you feel unwell, IMMEDIATELY contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre (show label if possible).
• If swallowed, IMMEDIATELY contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre (show this container or label).
• Use appropriate container to avoid environment contamination.
• Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/ safety data sheets.
• This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.

 

Section 3 - COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

NAME CAS RN %
sodium hypochlorite 7681-52-9 >98
marketed as sodium hypochlorite solution
containing more than 5% available chlorine

Section 4 - FIRST AID MEASURES

SWALLOWED

· For advice, contact a Poisons Information Centre or a doctor at once.
· Urgent hospital treatment is likely to be needed.
· If swallowed do NOT induce vomiting.
· If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain open airway and prevent aspiration.
· Observe the patient carefully.
· Never give liquid to a person showing signs of being sleepy or with reduced awareness; i.e. becoming unconscious.
· Give water to rinse out mouth, then provide liquid slowly and as much as casualty can comfortably drink.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.

EYE

■ If this product comes in contact with the eyes:
· Immediately hold eyelids apart and flush the eye continuously with running water.
· Ensure complete irrigation of the eye by keeping eyelids apart and away from eye and moving the eyelids by occasionally lifting the upper and lower lids.
· Continue flushing until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre or a doctor, or for at least 15 minutes.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.
· Removal of contact lenses after an eye injury should only be undertaken by skilled personnel.

SKIN

■ If skin or hair contact occurs:
· Immediately flush body and clothes with large amounts of water, using safety shower if available.
· Quickly remove all contaminated clothing, including footwear.
· Wash skin and hair with running water. Continue flushing with water until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor.

INHALED

· If fumes or combustion products are inhaled remove from contaminated area.
· Lay patient down. Keep warm and rested.
· Prostheses such as false teeth, which may block airway, should be removed, where possible, prior to initiating first aid procedures.
· Apply artificial respiration if not breathing, preferably with a demand valve resuscitator, bag-valve mask device, or pocket mask as trained. Perform CPR if necessary.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor, without delay.
· Inhalation of vapours or aerosols (mists, fumes) may cause lung oedema.
· Corrosive substances may cause lung damage (e.g. lung oedema, fluid in the lungs).
· As this reaction may be delayed up to 24 hours after exposure, affected individuals need complete rest (preferably in semi-recumbent posture) and must be kept under medical observation even if no symptoms are (yet) manifested.
· Before any such manifestation, the administration of a spray containing a dexamethasone derivative or beclomethasone derivative may be considered.
This must definitely be left to a doctor or person authorised by him/her.
(ICSC13719).

NOTES TO PHYSICIAN

■ Excellent warning properties force rapid escape of personnel from chlorine vapour thus most inhalations are mild to moderate. If escape is not possible, exposure
to high concentrations for a very short time can result in dyspnea, haemophysis and cyanosis with later complications being tracheobroncho- pneumonitis and pulmonary
oedema. Oxygen, intermittent positive pressure breathing apparatus and aerosolysed bronchodilators are of therapeutic value where chlorine inhalation has been light
to moderate. Severe inhalation should result in hospitalisation and treatment for a respiratory emergency.
Any chlorine inhalation in an individual with compromised pulmonary function (COPD) should be regarded as a severe inhalation and a respiratory emergency. [CCINFO,
Dow 1988]
Effects from exposure to chlorine gas include pulmonary oedema which may be delayed. Observation in hospital for 48 hours is recommended
Diagnosed asthmatics and those people suffering from certain types of chronic bronchitis should receive medical approval before being employed in occupations
involving chlorine exposure.
If burn is present, treat as any thermal burn, after decontamination.
for corrosives:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
BASIC TREATMENT
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
· Establish a patent airway with suction where necessary.
· Watch for signs of respiratory insufficiency and assist ventilation as necessary.
· Administer oxygen by non- rebreather mask at 10 to 15 l/min.
· Monitor and treat, where necessary, for pulmonary oedema .
· Monitor and treat, where necessary, for shock.
· Anticipate seizures.
· Where eyes have been exposed, flush immediately with water and continue to irrigate with normal saline during transport to hospital.
· DO NOT use emetics. Where ingestion is suspected rinse mouth and give up to 200 ml water (5 ml/kg recommended) for dilution where patient is able to swallow, has a
strong gag reflex and does not drool.
· Skin burns should be covered with dry, sterile bandages, following decontamination.
· DO NOT attempt neutralisation as exothermic reaction may occur.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
ADVANCED TREATMENT
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
· Consider orotracheal or nasotracheal intubation for airway control in unconscious patient or where respiratory arrest has occurred.
· Positive- pressure ventilation using a bag- valve mask might be of use.
· Monitor and treat, where necessary, for arrhythmias.
· Start an IV D5W TKO. If signs of hypovolaemia are present use lactated Ringers solution. Fluid overload might create complications.
· Drug therapy should be considered for pulmonary oedema.
· Hypotension with signs of hypovolaemia requires the cautious administration of fluids. Fluid overload might create complications.
· Treat seizures with diazepam.
· Proparacaine hydrochloride should be used to assist eye irrigation.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
· Laboratory analysis of complete blood count, serum electrolytes, BUN, creatinine, glucose, urinalysis, baseline for serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST), calcium,
phosphorus and magnesium, may assist in establishing a treatment regime.
· Positive end- expiratory pressure (PEEP)- assisted ventilation may be required for acute parenchymal injury or adult respiratory distress syndrome.
· Consider endoscopy to evaluate oral injury.
· Consult a toxicologist as necessary.
BRONSTEIN, A.C. and CURRANCE, P.L. EMERGENCY CARE FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS EXPOSURE: 2nd Ed. 1994.
For acute or repeated exposures to hypochlorite solutions:
· Release of small amounts of hypochlorous acid and acid gases from the stomach following ingestion, is usually too low to cause damage but may be irritating to
mucous membranes. Buffering with antacid may be helpful if discomfort is evident.
· Evaluate as potential caustic exposure.
· Decontaminate skin and eyes with copious saline irrigation. Check exposed eyes for corneal abrasions with fluorescein staining.
· Emesis or lavage and catharsis may be indicated for mild caustic exposure.
· Chlorine exposures require evaluation of acid/base and respiratory status.
· Inhalation of vapours or mists may result in pulmonary oedema.
ELLENHORN and BARCELOUX: Medical Toxicology.
Depending on the degree of exposure, periodic medical examination is indicated. The symptoms of lung oedema often do not manifest until a few hours have passed and
they are aggravated by physical effort. Rest and medical observation is therefore essential. Immediate administration of an appropriate spray, by a doctor or a
person authorised by him/her should be considered.
(ICSC24419/24421.

Section 5 - FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

EXTINGUISHING MEDIA

· Water spray or fog.
· Foam.
· Dry chemical powder.
· BCF (where regulations permit).
· Carbon dioxide.

FIRE FIGHTING

· Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
· Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus.
· Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course.
· Use fire fighting procedures suitable for surrounding area.
· Do not approach containers suspected to be hot.
· Cool fire exposed containers with water spray from a protected location.
· If safe to do so, remove containers from path of fire.
· Equipment should be thoroughly decontaminated after use.

FIRE/EXPLOSION HAZARD

· Non combustible.
· Not considered a significant fire risk, however containers may burn.
Decomposition may produce toxic fumes of: hydrogen chloride, metal oxides.
May emit corrosive fumes.

FIRE INCOMPATIBILITY

■ None known.

HAZCHEM

2X

Personal Protective Equipment

Breathing apparatus.
Gas tight chemical resistant suit.
Limit exposure duration to 1 BA set 30 mins.

Section 6 - ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

MINOR SPILLS

· Remove all ignition sources.
· Clean up all spills immediately.
· Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
· Control personal contact by using protective equipment.
· Use dry clean up procedures and avoid generating dust.
· Place in a suitable, labelled container for waste disposal.
· Drains for storage or use areas should have retention basins for pH adjustments and dilution of spills
before discharge or disposal of material.
· Check regularly for spills and leaks.
Neutralise with sodium metabisulfite or sodium thiosulfate.

MAJOR SPILLS

· Clear area of personnel and move upwind.
· Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
· Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus.
· Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course.
· Consider evacuation (or protect in place).
· Stop leak if safe to do so.
· Contain spill with sand, earth or vermiculite.
· Collect recoverable product into labelled containers for recycling.
· Neutralise/decontaminate residue (see Section 13 for specific agent).
· Collect solid residues and seal in labelled drums for disposal.
· Wash area and prevent runoff into drains.
· After clean up operations, decontaminate and launder all protective clothing and equipment before storing
and re- using.
· If contamination of drains or waterways occurs, advise emergency services.
Neutralise with sodium metabisulfite or sodium thiosulfate.

PROTECTIVE ACTIONS FOR SPILL

From IERG (Canada/Australia)
Isolation Distance 25 metres
Downwind Protection Distance 250 metres
IERG Number 37

 

FOOTNOTES
1 PROTECTIVE ACTION ZONE is defined as the area in which people are at risk of harmful exposure. This zone assumes that random changes in wind direction confines the
vapour plume to an area within 30 degrees on either side of the predominant wind direction, resulting in a crosswind protective action distance equal to the downwind
protective action distance.
2 PROTECTIVE ACTIONS should be initiated to the extent possible, beginning with those closest to the spill and working away from the site in the downwind direction.
Within the protective action zone a level of vapour concentration may exist resulting in nearly all unprotected persons becoming incapacitated and unable to take
protective action and/or incurring serious or irreversible health effects.
3 INITIAL ISOLATION ZONE is determined as an area, including upwind of the incident, within which a high probability of localised wind reversal may expose nearly all
persons without appropriate protection to life- threatening concentrations of the material.
4 SMALL SPILLS involve a leaking package of 200 litres (55 US gallons) or less, such as a drum (jerrican or box with inner containers). Larger packages leaking less
than 200 litres and compressed gas leaking from a small cylinder are also considered " small spills" .
LARGE SPILLS involve many small leaking packages or a leaking package of greater than 200 litres, such as a cargo tank, portable tank or a " one- tonne" compressed
gas cylinder.
5 Guide 154 is taken from the US DOT emergency response guide book.
6 IERG information is derived from CANUTEC - Transport Canada.

 

Personal Protective Equipment advice is contained in Section 8 of the MSDS.

Section 7 - HANDLING AND STORAGE

PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING

· Avoid all personal contact, including inhalation.
· Wear protective clothing when risk of exposure occurs.
· Use in a well-ventilated area.
· WARNING: To avoid violent reaction, ALWAYS add material to water and NEVER water to material.
· Avoid smoking, naked lights or ignition sources.
· Avoid contact with incompatible materials.
· When handling, DO NOT eat, drink or smoke.
· Keep containers securely sealed when not in use.
· Avoid physical damage to containers.
· Always wash hands with soap and water after handling.
· Work clothes should be laundered separately. Launder contaminated clothing before re-use.
· Use good occupational work practice.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.
· Atmosphere should be regularly checked against established exposure standards to ensure safe working conditions are maintained.

SUITABLE CONTAINER

■ Liquid inorganic hypochlorites shall not to be transported in unlined metal drums. Inner packagings shall be fitted with vented closures and plastics drums and carboys shall have vented closures or be performance tested to a minimum of 250 kPa. All non-vented packagings shall be filled so that the ullage is at least 10% at 21-25 deg.C. Vented packagings may be filled to an ullage not less than 5% at 21-25 deg.C, provided that this ullage does not result in leakage from, nor distortion of, the packaging.
· Glass container is suitable for laboratory quantities.
· Lined metal can, lined metal pail/ can.
· Plastic pail.
· Polyliner drum.
· Packing as recommended by manufacturer.
· Check all containers are clearly labelled and free from leaks.
For low viscosity materials
· Drums and jerricans must be of the non-removable head type.
· Where a can is to be used as an inner package, the can must have a screwed enclosure.
For materials with a viscosity of at least 2680 cSt. (23 deg. C) and solids (between 15 C deg. and 40 deg C.):
· Removable head packaging;
· Cans with friction closures and
· low pressure tubes and cartridges
may be used.
-
Where combination packages are used, and the inner packages are of glass, porcelain or stoneware, there must be sufficient inert cushioning material in contact with inner and outer packages unless the outer packaging is a close fitting moulded plastic box and the substances are not incompatible with the plastic.

STORAGE INCOMPATIBILITY

· Contact with acids produces toxic fumes.
· Metals and their oxides or salts may react violently with chlorine trifluoride and bromine trifluoride.
· These trifluorides are hypergolic oxidisers. They ignites on contact (without external source of heat or ignition) with recognised fuels - contact with these materials, following an ambient or slightly elevated temperature, is often violent and may produce ignition.
· The state of subdivision may affect the results.
· Presence of rust (iron oxide) or other metal oxides catalyses decomposition of inorganic hypochlorites.
· Contact with water can cause heating and decomposition giving off chlorine and oxygen gases. Solid hypochlorites in contact with water or moisture may generate sufficient heat to ignite combustible materials. Thermal decomposition can be sustained in the absence of oxygen.
· Contact with acids produces toxic fumes of chlorine.
· Bottles of strong sodium hypochlorite solution (10-14% available chlorine) burst in storage due to failure of the cap designed to vent oxygen slowly during storage. A hot summer may have exacerbated the situation. Vent caps should be checked regularly (using full personal protection) and hypochlorites should not be stored in direct sunlight or at temperatures exceeding 18 deg. C
· Anhydrous solid hypochlorite may decompose violently on heating or if subject to friction.
· Inorganic hypochlorites reacts violently with many incompatible materials including fuels, oils, wood, paper, etc. which become readily ignitable. Avoid contact with peroxides glycerine, lubricating oil, combustibles, amines, solvents, charcoal, metal oxides and salts, copper , mercaptan, sulfur, organic sulfides, turpentine.
· Contact of hypochlorites with nitromethane, alcohols, glycerol, phenol or diethylene glycol monomethyl ether results in ignition.
· Ammonia or primary aliphatic or aromatic amines may react with hypochlorites to form N-mono- or di-chloramines which are explosively unstable (but less so than nitrogen trichloride). Contact in drains between effluents containing ammonium salts and hypochlorites and acid lead to the formation of nitrogen trichloride which decomposed explosively. Whilst cleaning a brewery tank, reaction between an acidified ammonium sulfate cleaning preparation and sodium hypochlorite, lead nitrogen chloride formation and violent explosion
· Interaction of ethyleneimine (aziridine) with hypochlorites gives an explosive N-chloro compound
· Interaction of metal hypochlorites with nitrogenous materials may lead to the formation of nitrogen trichloride with explosive decomposition.
· Metal oxides catalyse the oxygen decomposition of the hypochlorite.
· Heating with carbon under confinement can result in explosion. Explosive interaction has occurred with carbonised food residues. After an attempt to clean these using bleach, and after heating, sodium chlorate appears to have been formed with consequent violent explosion
· Removal of formic acid from industrial waste streams with sodium hypochlorite solutions produced explosion at 55 deg. C.
· Explosions following reaction with methanol are attributed to formation of methyl hypochlorite.
· When finely divided materials such as sugar, wood dust and paper are contaminated with hypochlorite solution they burn more readily when dry.
· Calcium hypochlorite with over 60% "active" chlorine ignites on contact with lubricating oils, damp sulfur, organic thiols or sulfides
· Incompatible with sanitising bowl cleaners containing bisulfites.
Contact with acids produces toxic fumes of chlorine.
· Avoid any contamination of this material as it is very reactive and any contamination is potentially hazardous.

PACKAGING MATERIAL INCOMPATIBILITIES

Chemical Name                   Container Type
Sodium Hypochlorite (100%)      " 304 stainless steel" , " 316 stainless steel" , " Acetal (Delrinr)"
                                , Aluminum, Brass, " Buna N (Nitrile)" , " Carbon Steel" , " Carpenter
                                20" , " Cast iron" , Epoxy, Hytrelr, Neoprene, Nylon, Polyurethane

STORAGE REQUIREMENTS

· Store in an upright position.
· Store in original containers.
· Keep containers securely sealed.
· Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.
· Store away from incompatible materials and foodstuff containers.
· Protect containers against physical damage and check regularly for leaks.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.

_____________________________________________________

SAFE STORAGE WITH OTHER CLASSIFIED CHEMICALS

X X X X X 0

_____________________________________________________

+: May be stored together
O: May be stored together with specific preventions
X: Must not be stored together

 

Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION

EXPOSURE CONTROLS

SourceMaterialPeak ppmPeak mg/m³
____________________________________
Australia Exposure Standardssodium hypochlorite (Chlorine)13

 

EMERGENCY EXPOSURE LIMITS

Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
sodium hypochlorite 1 10
Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
sodium hypochlorite 1 10

 

MATERIAL DATA

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE:
■ for chlorine:
Odour Threshold Value: 0.08 ppm (detection) - olfactory fatigue may develop
NOTE: Detector tubes for chlorine, measuring in excess of 0.2 ppm, are commercially available. Long- term measurements (8 hrs) may be conducted to detect
concentrations exceeding 0.13 ppm.
Smell is not a good indicator of severity of exposure in the range 0.5 to 2 ppm. In this range subjects found exposure unpleasant with itching and burning of the
throat reported and occasionally an urge to cough. Significant differences in the responses of males and females were also recorded with females often reporting
headache and drowsiness.
Exposure at 1 ppm chlorine for 8 hours produced significant changes in pulmonary function and increased subjective irritation. Similar 8 hour exposures at 0.5 ppm
produced no significant pulmonary function changes and less severe subjective irritation. Exposures for 2 hours at 2 ppm chlorine produced no significant changes in
pulmonary irritation.
An 8 hour exposure at 1.5 ppm produced increased mucous secretion from the nose and increased mucous in the hypopharynx. Exposure at or below the TLV- TWA and STEL
is thought to protect the worker against annoying symptoms in nose, throat and conjunctiva and declines in pulmonary function.
Odour Safety Factor(OSF)
OSF=1.6 (CHLORINE).
available chlorine, as chlorine
TLV TWA: 0.5 ppm, 1.5 mg/m3: STEL: 1 ppm, 2.9 mg/m3
ES Peak: 1 ppm, 3 mg/m3
CEL TWA: 2 mg/m3 (compare WEEL TWA)
The odour threshold is likely to be similar to that of chlorine, 0.3 ppm.
Acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies have shown no significant treatment related effects. High concentrations may produce moderate to severe eye
irritation, but not permanent injury. High doses also appear to be embryotoxic. Since nearly all sodium hypochlorite is handled as aqueous solution, airborne
exposure is likely to be as an aerosol, or mist. Sodium hypochlorite dissociates in water to form free hypochlorous acid in equilibrium. The toxic effects are likely
to be similar to those of chlorine or sodium hydroxide.

 

PERSONAL PROTECTION

EYE

· Safety glasses with unperforated side shields may be used where continuous eye protection is desirable, as in laboratories; spectacles are not sufficient where
complete eye protection is needed such as when handling bulk- quantities, where there is a danger of splashing, or if the material may be under pressure
· Chemical goggles.whenever there is a danger of the material coming in contact with the eyes; goggles must be properly fitted
· Full face shield (20 cm, 8 in minimum) may be required for supplementary but never for primary protection of eyes; these afford face protection.
· Alternatively a gas mask may replace splash goggles and face shields.
· Contact lenses may pose a special hazard; soft contact lenses may absorb and concentrate irritants. A written policy document, describing the wearing of lens or
restrictions on use, should be created for each workplace or task. This should include a review of lens absorption and adsorption for the class of chemicals in use
and an account of injury experience. Medical and first- aid personnel should be trained in their removal and suitable equipment should be readily available. In the
event of chemical exposure, begin eye irrigation immediately and remove contact lens as soon as practicable. Lens should be removed at the first signs of eye redness
or irritation - lens should be removed in a clean environment only after workers have washed hands thoroughly. [CDC NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 59], [AS/NZS
1336 or national equivalent].

HANDS/FEET

· Elbow length PVC gloves.
NOTE:
· The material may produce skin sensitisation in predisposed individuals. Care must be taken, when removing gloves and other protective equipment, to avoid all
possible skin contact.
· Contaminated leather items, such as shoes, belts and watch- bands should be removed and destroyed.
Suitability and durability of glove type is dependent on usage. Important factors in the selection of gloves include:
· frequency and duration of contact,
· chemical resistance of glove material,
· glove thickness and
· dexterity
Select gloves tested to a relevant standard (e.g. Europe EN 374, US F739, AS/NZS 2161.1 or national equivalent).
· When prolonged or frequently repeated contact may occur, a glove with a protection class of 5 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 240 minutes according to EN
374, AS/NZS 2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· When only brief contact is expected, a glove with a protection class of 3 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 60 minutes according to EN 374, AS/NZS
2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· Contaminated gloves should be replaced.
Gloves must only be worn on clean hands. After using gloves, hands should be washed and dried thoroughly. Application of a non- perfumed moisturiser is recommended.

OTHER

· Overalls.
· PVC Apron.
· PVC protective suit may be required if exposure severe.
· Eyewash unit.
· Ensure there is ready access to a safety shower.

GLOVE SELECTION INDEX

■ Glove selection is based on a modified presentation of the:
" Forsberg Clothing Performance Index" .
The effect(s) of the following substance(s) are taken into account in the
computer- generated selection: sodium hypochlorite
■ Protective Material CPI *.
____________________________________________
NATURAL RUBBER A
NATURAL+NEOPRENE A
NEOPRENE A
NITRILE A
NITRILE+PVC A
PVC A
____________________________________________ ■ * CPI - Chemwatch Performance Index A: Best Selection B: Satisfactory; may degrade after 4 hours continuous immersion C: Poor to Dangerous Choice for other than short term immersion NOTE: As a series of factors will influence the actual performance of the glove, a final selection must be based on detailed observation. - * Where the glove is to be used on a short term, casual or infrequent basis, factors such as " feel" or convenience (e.g. disposability), may dictate a choice of gloves which might otherwise be unsuitable following long- term or frequent use. A qualified practitioner should be consulted.

RESPIRATOR

•Type B- P Filter of sufficient capacity. (AS/NZS 1716 & 1715, EN 143:2000 & 149:2001, ANSI Z88 or national equivalent)
■ Selection of the Class and Type of respirator will depend upon the level of breathing zone contaminant and the chemical nature of the contaminant. Protection
Factors (defined as the ratio of contaminant outside and inside the mask) may also be important.
Required minimum protection factor Maximum gas/vapour concentration present in air p.p.m. (by volume) Half-face Respirator Full-Face Respirator
up to 10 1000 b-AUS / Class1 p -
up to 50 1000 - b-AUS / Class 1 p
up to 50 5000 Airline * -
up to 100 5000 - b-2 p
up to 100 10000 - b-3 p
100+ Airline**
* - Continuous Flow ** - Continuous- flow or positive pressure demand A(All classes) = Organic vapours, B AUS or B1 = Acid gasses, B2 = Acid gas or hydrogen cyanide(HCN), B3 = Acid gas or hydrogen cyanide(HCN), E = Sulfur dioxide(SO2), G = Agricultural chemicals, K = Ammonia(NH3), Hg = Mercury, NO = Oxides of nitrogen, MB = Methyl bromide, AX = Low boiling point organic compounds(below 65 degC). · Respirators may be necessary when engineering and administrative controls do not adequately prevent exposures. · The decision to use respiratory protection should be based on professional judgment that takes into account toxicity information, exposure measurement data, and frequency and likelihood of the worker' s exposure - ensure users are not subject to high thermal loads which may result in heat stress or distress due to personal protective equipment (powered, positive flow, full face apparatus may be an option). · Published occupational exposure limits, where they exist, will assist in determining the adequacy of the selected respiratory . These may be government mandated or vendor recommended. · Certified respirators will be useful for protecting workers from inhalation of particulates when properly selected and fit tested as part of a complete respiratory protection program. · Use approved positive flow mask if significant quantities of dust becomes airborne. · Try to avoid creating dust conditions. The local concentration of material, quantity and conditions of use determine the type of personal protective equipment required. For further information consult site specific CHEMWATCH data (if available), or your Occupational Health and Safety Advisor.

ENGINEERING CONTROLS

■ Engineering controls are used to remove a hazard or place a barrier between the worker and the hazard. Well- designed engineering controls can be highly effective
in protecting workers and will typically be independent of worker interactions to provide this high level of protection.
The basic types of engineering controls are:
Process controls which involve changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk.
Enclosure and/or isolation of emission source which keeps a selected hazard " physically" away from the worker and ventilation that strategically " adds" and "
removes" air in the work environment. Ventilation can remove or dilute an air contaminant if designed properly. The design of a ventilation system must match the
particular process and chemical or contaminant in use.
Employers may need to use multiple types of controls to prevent employee overexposure.
Local exhaust ventilation usually required. If risk of overexposure exists, wear approved respirator. Correct fit is essential to obtain adequate protection.
Supplied- air type respirator may be required in special circumstances. Correct fit is essential to ensure adequate protection.
An approved self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) may be required in some situations.
Provide adequate ventilation in warehouse or closed storage area. Air contaminants generated in the workplace possess varying " escape" velocities which, in turn,
determine the " capture velocities" of fresh circulating air required to effectively remove the contaminant.
Type of Contaminant: Air Speed:
solvent, vapours, degreasing etc., evaporating from tank (in still air). 0.25-0.5 m/s (50-100 f/min.)
aerosols, fumes from pouring operations, intermittent container filling, low speed conveyer transfers, welding, spray drift, plating acid fumes, pickling (released at low velocity into zone of active generation) 0.5-1 m/s (100-200 f/min.)
direct spray, spray painting in shallow booths, drum filling, conveyer loading, crusher dusts, gas discharge (active generation into zone of rapid air motion) 1-2.5 m/s (200-500 f/min.)
grinding, abrasive blasting, tumbling, high speed wheel generated dusts (released at high initial velocity into zone of very high rapid air motion). 2.5-10 m/s (500-2000 f/min.)
Within each range the appropriate value depends on:
Lower end of the range Upper end of the range
1: Room air currents minimal or favourable to capture 1: Disturbing room air currents
2: Contaminants of low toxicity or of nuisance value only. 2: Contaminants of high toxicity
3: Intermittent, low production. 3: High production, heavy use
4: Large hood or large air mass in motion 4: Small hood-local control only
Simple theory shows that air velocity falls rapidly with distance away from the opening of a simple extraction pipe. Velocity generally decreases with the square of distance from the extraction point (in simple cases). Therefore the air speed at the extraction point should be adjusted, accordingly, after reference to distance from the contaminating source. The air velocity at the extraction fan, for example, should be a minimum of 1- 2 m/s (200- 400 f/min) for extraction of solvents generated in a tank 2 meters distant from the extraction point. Other mechanical considerations, producing performance deficits within the extraction apparatus, make it essential that theoretical air velocities are multiplied by factors of 10 or more when extraction systems are installed or used. CARE: Use of a quantity of this material in confined space or poorly ventilated area, where rapid build up of concentrated atmosphere may occur, could require increased ventilation and/or protective gear.

Section 9 - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

APPEARANCE

White crystals with disagreeable odour; soluble in cold water, decomposed by hot water. Strong oxidising agent. Highly unstable in air unless mixed with sodium
hydroxide. Usually stored and used in solution. Packaging Group III is used for solutions containing more than 5% but less than 16% available chlorine.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Solid.
Mixes with water.
Corrosive.
Contact with acids liberates toxic gas.

 

StateDivided solidMolecular Weight74.77
Melting Range (ºC)Decomposes.ViscosityNot Available
Boiling Range (ºC)Decomposes.Solubility in water (g/L)Miscible
Flash Point (ºC)Not applicablepH (1% solution)Not available
Decomposition Temp (ºC)Not availablepH (as supplied)Not applicable
Autoignition Temp (ºC)Not availableVapour Pressure (kPa)Not available
Upper Explosive Limit (%)Not applicableSpecific Gravity (water=1)Not available
Lower Explosive Limit (%)Not applicableRelative Vapour Density (air=1)Not Available
Volatile Component (%vol)Not availableEvaporation RateNot available

 

StateDivided solidMolecular Weight74.77
Melting Range (ºC)Decomposes.ViscosityNot Available
Boiling Range (ºC)Decomposes.Solubility in water (g/L)Miscible
Flash Point (ºC)Not applicablepH (1% solution)Not available
Decomposition Temp (ºC)Not availablepH (as supplied)Not applicable
Autoignition Temp (ºC)Not availableVapour Pressure (kPa)Not available
Upper Explosive Limit (%)Not applicableSpecific Gravity (water=1)Not available
Lower Explosive Limit (%)Not applicableRelative Vapour Density (air=1)Not Available
Volatile Component (%vol)Not availableEvaporation RateNot available

Section 10 - STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

CONDITIONS CONTRIBUTING TO INSTABILITY

· Presence of incompatible materials.
· Product is considered stable.
· Hazardous polymerisation will not occur.

For incompatible materials - refer to Section 7 - Handling and Storage.

Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

ACUTE HEALTH EFFECTS

SWALLOWED

■ The material can produce severe chemical burns within the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract following ingestion.
Accidental ingestion of the material may be damaging to the health of the individual.
Ingestion of hypochlorites may cause burning in the mouth and throat, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pain and inflammation of the mouth and stomach,
fall of blood pressure, shock, confusion, and delirium. Severe poisonings may lead to convulsion, coma and death. Ingestion irritates the mouth, throat, and stomach.
The hypochlorous acid liberated in the stomach can cause wall perforation, toxemia, haemorrhage and death.
Necrosis and haemorrhage of the upper digestive tract, oedema and pulmonary emphysema were found on autopsy after suicidal ingestion, and methaemoglobinaemia was
also reported in another fatal case.

EYE

■ The material can produce severe chemical burns to the eye following direct contact. Vapours or mists may be extremely irritating.
If applied to the eyes, this material causes severe eye damage.
Hypochlorite in pool water at concentrations of 1 ppm chlorine or less is non irritating to eyes if the pH is higher than 7.2 (slightly alkaline); At lower pH
sensation of stinging, smarting of eyes with transient reddening may occur but generally no injury.
Eye contact with a 5% hypochlorite solution may produce a temporary burning discomfort and slight irritation of the corneal epithelium with no injury.

SKIN

■ The material can produce severe chemical burns following direct contactwith the skin.
Skin contact is not thought to have harmful health effects (as classified under EC Directives); the material may still produce health damage following entry through
wounds, lesions or abrasions.
There is some evidence to suggest that this material can cause inflammation of the skin on contact in some persons.
Skin contact will result in rapid drying, bleaching, leading to chemical burns on prolonged contact.
Open cuts, abraded or irritated skin should not be exposed to this material.
Contact may cause severe itchiness, skin lesions and mild eczema.
A 5.25% solution of sodium hypochlorite applied to intact human skin for 4 hours and observed at 4, 24 and 48 hours resulted in exudation an slight sloughing of the
skin on 4 of 7 subjects.
Two patients were reported with chronic allergic dermatitis of the hand related to sensitisation to sodium hypochlorite as the active component of laundry bleach.
Entry into the blood- stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use
of the material and ensure that any external damage is suitably protected.

INHALED

■ The material can cause respiratory irritation in some persons. The body' s response to such irritation can cause further lung damage.
Persons with impaired respiratory function, airway diseases and conditions such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis, may incur further disability if excessive
concentrations of particulate are inhaled.
If prior damage to the circulatory or nervous systems has occurred or if kidney damage has been sustained, proper screenings should be conducted on individuals who
may be exposed to further risk if handling and use of the material result
in excessive exposures.
Chlorine vapour is extremely irritating to the airways and lungs, causing coughing, choking, breathing difficulty, chest pain, headache, vomiting, fluid accumulation
in the lungs, chest infection and loss of consciousness. Effects may be delayed. Long term exposure (at workplace) may lead to corrosion of the teeth, irritate the
linings of the nose and may increase the likelihood of developing tuberculosis. Recent studies have not confirmed these findings. Very low concentrations may
irritate the eyes, nose and throat and cause the above reactions.

CHRONIC HEALTH EFFECTS

■ Repeated or prolonged exposure to corrosives may result in the erosion of teeth, inflammatory and ulcerative changes in the mouth and necrosis (rarely) of the jaw.
Bronchial irritation, with cough, and frequent attacks of bronchial pneumonia may ensue. Gastrointestinal disturbances may also occur. Chronic exposures may result
in dermatitis and/or conjunctivitis.
Long- term exposure to respiratory irritants may result in disease of the airways involving difficult breathing and related systemic problems.
There has been some concern that this material can cause cancer or mutations but there is not enough data to make an assessment.
Substance accumulation, in the human body, may occur and may cause some concern following repeated or long- term occupational exposure.
There is limited evidence that, skin contact with this product is more likely to cause a sensitisation reaction in some persons compared to the general population.
Long term exposure to high dust concentrations may cause changes in lung function i.e. pneumoconiosis; caused by particles less than 0.5 micron penetrating and
remaining in the lung. Prime symptom is breathlessness; lung shadows show on X- ray.
Reduced respiratory capacity may result from chronic low level exposure to chlorine gas. Chronic poisoning may result in coughing, severe chest pains, sore throat
and haemoptysis (bloody sputum). Moderate to severe exposures over 3 years produced decreased lung capacity in a number of workers.
Delayed effects can include shortness of breath, violent headaches, pulmonary oedema and pneumonia.
Amongst chloralkali workers exposed to mean concentrations of 0.15 ppm for an average of 10.9 years a generalised pattern of fatigue (exposures of 0.5 ppm and above)
and a modest increased incidence of anxiety and dizziness were recorded. Leukocytosis and a lower haematocrit showed some relation to exposure.

TOXICITY AND IRRITATION

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE:
■ unless otherwise specified data extracted from RTECS - Register of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
TOXICITY IRRITATION
Oral (mouse) LD50: 5800 mg/kg Eye (rabbit): 10 mg - Moderate
Oral (woman) TDLo: 1000 mg/kg Skin (rabbit): 500 mg/24h-Moderate
Oral (rat) LD50: 8910 mg/kg Eye (rabbit): 100 mg - Moderate
■ Asthma- like symptoms may continue for months or even years after exposure to the material ceases. This may be due to a non- allergenic condition known as reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) which can occur following exposure to high levels of highly irritating compound. Key criteria for the diagnosis of RADS include the absence of preceding respiratory disease, in a non- atopic individual, with abrupt onset of persistent asthma- like symptoms within minutes to hours of a documented exposure to the irritant. A reversible airflow pattern, on spirometry, with the presence of moderate to severe bronchial hyperreactivity on methacholine challenge testing and the lack of minimal lymphocytic inflammation, without eosinophilia, have also been included in the criteria for diagnosis of RADS. RADS (or asthma) following an irritating inhalation is an infrequent disorder with rates related to the concentration of and duration of exposure to the irritating substance. Industrial bronchitis, on the other hand, is a disorder that occurs as result of exposure due to high concentrations of irritating substance (often particulate in nature) and is completely reversible after exposure ceases. The disorder is characterised by dyspnea, cough and mucus production. Hypochlorite salts are classified by IARC as Group 3: NOT classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. Evidence of carcinogenicity may be inadequate or limited in animal testing. The material may produce moderate eye irritation leading to inflammation. Repeated or prolonged exposure to irritants may produce conjunctivitis. Hypochlorite salts are extremely corrosive and can cause severe damage to the eyes and skin. A number of skin cancers have been observed in mice, when applied to their skin. as sodium hypochlorite pentahydrate

 

CARCINOGEN

Hypochlorite saltsInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC MonographsGroup3

 

Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE:
Marine PollutantYes
■ Very toxic to aquatic organisms. Do NOT allow product to come in contact with surface waters or to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. Do not contaminate water when cleaning equipment or disposing of equipment wash- waters. Wastes resulting from use of the product must be disposed of on site or at approved waste sites. For chlorine: Environmental fate: Atmospheric chlorine produced as a result of such process as disinfection forms hydrochloric (HCl) or hypochlorous (HOCl) acid in the atmosphere, either through reactions with hydroxy radicals or other trace species such as hydrocarbons. These acids are believed to removed from the atmosphere primarily through precipitation washout (i.e. wet deposition as chlorine is scrubbed out by rain in the subcloud layer) or dry deposition as gaseous chlorine contacts and reacts with the earths surface. Water chlorination, resulting from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment and cooling water disinfection, initially introduces chlorine into the water as chlorine gas, hypochlorite ion (OCl- ), or its salt. These forms of chlorine are termed free residual chlorines (FRC). Chlorine in aqueous systems volatilises or quickly decays to residual forms such as hypochlorous acid, chloramine and chlorinated organics. Aquatic chemistry is determined by aquatic factors including pH, ammonium ion (which combines with chlorine to produce chloramine) and certain other reducing agents. Inorganic reducing agents in estuarine waters include sulfur, iron and manganese. Other organic compounds in water also contribute to chlorine decay rate. The reactions of chlorine or hypochlorites in water produce a number of by- products many of which have been implicated as genotoxic or tumourigenic. Chlorine, added to drinking water as chlorine gas (Cl2) or hypochlorite salts (e.g., NaOCl), effectively inactivates bacteria in 20 minutes at concentrations of 0.03 to 0.06 mg/l at pH range of 7.0 to 8.5 and temperature range of 4 deg.C to 22 deg.C. Chlorine disinfectants in wastewater react with organic matters, giving rise to organic chlorine compounds such as AOX (halogenated organic compounds absorbable on activated carbon), which are toxic for aquatic organisms and are persistent environmental contaminants. Chlorine hydrolyses very rapidly in water (rate constants range from 1.5 x 10- 4 at deg. C to 4.0 x 10- 4 at 25 deg.C; half- life in natural waters, 0.005 seconds. In fresh and wastewaters at pH >6, complete hydrolysis occurs with the formation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and chloride ion (Cl- ). The hypochlorous acid ionizes to hydrogen ion (H+) and hypochlorite ion (OCl- ). At pH values >5, OCl- predominates; at pH values <5, HOCl predominates. Free chlorine (Cl2, HOCl, and OCl- ) reacts rapidly with inorganics such as bromide and more slowly with organic material present in natural waters. These reactions yield chloride, oxidised organics, chloroorganics (including trihalomethanes), oxygen, nitrogen, chlorate, bromate and bromoorganics. Chlorines ultimate aqueous fate is chloride. Vapourisation of molecular chlorine (Cl2) from water to the atmosphere may be significant at low pH values and high concentrations (e.g., pH 2 and 3500 mg/l chlorine), but is insignificant at neutral pH and low concentrations. Vegetation acts as an important sink for chlorine air pollution. Plant exposure to elevated levels of chlorine can cause plant injury; however chlorine tends to be rapidly converted to other less toxic forms. Atmospheric: When chlorine, hypochlorous acid or hydrogen chloride mixes in the atmosphere with water vapour, dilute solutions of strong mineral acids are formed that fall to earth as acid rain, snow, and fog, or acidified dry particles. Chlorine may react with soil components to form chlorides; depending on their water solubility, these chlorides are easily washed out from the soil. Bioaccumulation/ bioconcentration: There is no potential for the bioaccumulation or bioconcentration of chlorine. Ecotoxicity: Fish LC50 (96 h): 0.015- 13.5 mg/l Chlorine has high acute toxicity to aquatic organisms; many toxicity values are less than or equal to 1 mg/l. Twenty- four- hour LC50 values range from 0.076 to 0.16 mg/l for Daphnia magna (water flea) and from 0.005 to 0.1 m/l for Daphnia pulex (cladocern); 48- hour LC50 values range from 5.3 to 12.8 m/l for Nitocra spinipes (snail); and 96- hour LC50 values range from 0.13 to 0.29 mg/L for Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), from 0.1 to 0.18 mg/l for Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout), and from 0.71- 0.82 mg/l for Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish) Papillomas of the oral cavity in fish have been associated with exposure to chlorinated water supplies. Chlorine is phytotoxic but is also essential to plant growth; crops need around 2 kg or more of chlorine per acre. Acute toxicity to plants is characterized by defoliation with no leaf symptoms and, in higher plant forms, by spotting of the leaves (at 1.5 mg/m3) and marginal and interveinal injury (at 150- 300 mg/m3) Data from experimental studies indicate that injury to animals occurs only in the presence of high concentrations of chlorine, either in drinking water or the ambient atmosphere. http://www.epa.gov/chemfact/s_chlori.txt U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY August 1994. for hypochlorites: Environmental fate: NOTE: Hypochlorite ion is predominant at alkaline pH values, while Cl2 is mainly present at pH below 4. Therefore the concentration of chlorine in an aqueous solution is generally expressed as free available chlorine (FAC) which is the sum of Cl2 + HOCl + ClO- , regardless whether these species stem from dissolved gaseous chlorine or from dissolved sodium/calcium hypochlorite Hypochlorite anion dissolved in water is brought to equilibrium between active chlorine species like chlorine (Cl2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or hypochlorite ClO- . The relative amounts of the components are dependent on ionic strength and pH. At the pH in the natural environment (6- 8), HOCl or ClO is dominating (HClO: pKa = 7.53). A diluted aqueous solution of HOCl will decompose very slowly in the dark, but more rapidly in the presence of light, particularly rapidly in full sun light, by producing hydrogen chloride and oxygen. Some chlorine and chloric acid (HClO3) may also develop. The physico- chemical properties indicate that chlorine released into the environment as HClO or Cl2 is distributed into water and air. Consequently, the effects that may manifest in the natural environment are considered common to those assessed for the other source of hypochlorite. In the natural water, in the presence of organic or inorganic compounds, the free available chlorine immediately reacts forming various chlorinated and/or oxidized by- products e.g. chloramines or chloromethanes. They are mainly distributed to the hydrosphere, but are also able to transfer to some extent to the atmosphere depending on their intrinsic properties. A potential for bioaccumulation or bioconcentration of active chlorine species can be disregarded, because of their water solubility and their high reactivity. In fresh water, the hypochlorites break down rapidly into non- toxic compounds when exposed to sunlight. In seawater, chlorine levels decline rapidly; however, hypobromite (which is acutely toxic to aquatic organisms) is formed. Sodium and calcium hypochlorite are low in toxicity to avian wildlife, but they are highly toxic to freshwater fish and invertebrates. Hypochlorite is a highly reactive chemical which, during and after its use in household scenarios, undergoes a variety of reactions. The major one is the oxidation of inorganic and organic species. A minor reaction, which consumes about 1.5% of the chlorine atoms from hypochlorite, is chlorination, which leads to formation of organohalogen by- products that are often measured by the group parameter, AOX. Hypochlorite itself is rapidly broken down during use, in the sewer, and if any does reach sewage treatment it will further degrade (half- life of around 0.6 minutes). Predictions have indicated that its concentration will fall to below 1.E- 32 ug/l by the end of the sewer, partially due to its reaction with ammonia in the sewer which leads to a subsequent increase in chloramine. The organohalogen by- products formed from the use of hypochlorite are currently receiving much attention. However, the levels of AOX produced are low (for example, 37 ug/l from bleach use compared to a sewage background level of 106 ug/l), and the organohalogens produced from domestic use of hypochlorite are not believed to have an adverse effect on the environment. Available data indicate that no dioxins are produced, and that the identified AOXs are typically small molecules with a low degree of chlorination and for which ecotoxicological properties are known or can be predicted. Where drinking water is disinfected by chlorination, the levels of organohalogens in sewage effluent arising from bleach use will be comparable with, and sometimes only a fraction of, those arising from the tap- water. After secondary sewage treatment, the levels entering receiving waters will be of the same order of magnitude as background levels typically present in rivers, though the total flux in rivers from natural sources will be much greater. The majority of the measured AOX is unidentified, but thought to consist of high molecular weight components formed from fats, proteins and humic acids which are too large to bioaccumulate. In addition, studies on the whole AOX mixture in laundry waste- water indicated that the level of AOX present did not effect growth or reproduction of Ceriodaphnia, and that around 70% is removed in activated sludge. Ecotoxicity: The level of chloramine reaching surface water is estimated to be below 5.E- 10 ug/l. Both these concentrations are orders of magnitude below the lowest acute EC50s determined for sodium hypochlorite (EC50 to invertebrates = 5 ug/l) and monochloramine (EC50 to invertebrates = 16 ug/l). Valid freshwater short- term toxicity data are available only for invertebrates: the LC50 for Ceriodaphnia dubia is 5 ug FAC/l (FAC=Free available chlorine). Adequate standard acute tests in fish are not available, but from many reliable studies performed under intermittent exposure conditions a 96h LC50 of 60 ug TRC/L and a 168 h LC50 of 330 ug TRC/L can be derived (TRC = total residual chlorine = the sum of combined and free residual available chlorine). Due to the intermittent regime (three 45 minutes pulses per day) a 96h LC50 << 60 ug TRC/l can be expected for fish in a standard test. Most lowest result for algae is reported for Thalassiosira pseudonana with a IC50 of 75 ug/L (20 deg C). Regarding long- term toxicity to freshwater organisms, the lowest NOEC was 5 ug/L (Ictalurus punctatus, 133 d, growth). In microcosm and field studies the most sensitive parameter was the density of zooplankton with a NOEC of 1.5 ug TRC/L, and zooplankton is more sensitive to chlorine than algae. For salt water, valid short- term toxicity data are available for mollusks and for fish (Oncorhynchus kisutch 96 h LC50 = 32 ug TRO/L) (TRO = Total Residual Oxidant) showing comparable sensitivity. For long term toxicity the molluscs are more sensitive than fish showing a 15 d NOEC of 6.2 ug TRO/L. It is impossible to delineate representative toxicity indicator figures because of the unique feature of the chemical to be tested in standard methods. However, the accumulated scientific information covering a wide range of species, temperature, application regime or field studies can be used for the hazard assessment. Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water courses. DO NOT discharge into sewer or waterways. The material is classified as an ecotoxin* because the Fish LC50 (96 hours) is less than or equal to 0.1 mg/l * Classification of Substances as Ecotoxic (Dangerous to the Environment) Appendix 8, Table 1 Compiler' s Guide for the Preparation of International Chemical Safety Cards: 1993 Commission of the European Communities.

Ecotoxicity

IngredientPersistence: Water/SoilPersistence: AirBioaccumulationMobility
sodium hypochloriteNo Data AvailableNo Data Available

 

GESAMP/EHS COMPOSITE LIST - GESAMP Hazard Profiles

Name /     EHS  TRN  A1a  A1b  A1   A2   B1   B2   C1   C2   C3   D1   D2   D3   E1   E2   E3
Cas No /
RTECS No
_________  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___
Sodium     125  278  Ino       0    Ino  (4)  (1)  0    0    1    3    3    S         D    3
hypochlor  6    5    rg             rg
ite
solutions

containin
g 20% and
less but
more than
2% NaOCl
/
CAS:7681-
 52- 9 /


Legend:
EHS=EHS Number (EHS=GESAMP Working Group on the Evaluation of the Hazards of Harmful Substances Carried by Ships) NRT=Net Register Tonnage, A1a=Bioaccumulation log Pow, A1b=Bioaccumulation BCF, A1=Bioaccumulation, A2=Biodegradation, B1=Acuteaquatic toxicity LC/ECIC50 (mg/l), B2=Chronic aquatic toxicity NOEC (mg/l), C1=Acute mammalian oral toxicity LD50 (mg/kg), C2=Acutemammalian dermal toxicity LD50 (mg/kg), C3=Acute mammalian inhalation toxicity LC50 (mg/kg), D1=Skin irritation & corrosion, D2=Eye irritation& corrosion, D3=Long-term health effects, E1=Tainting, E2=Physical effects on wildlife & benthic habitats, E3=Interference with coastal amenities,
For column A2: R=Readily biodegradable, NR=Not readily biodegradable.
For column D3: C=Carcinogen, M=Mutagenic, R=Reprotoxic, S=Sensitising, A=Aspiration hazard, T=Target organ systemic toxicity, L=Lunginjury, N=Neurotoxic, I=Immunotoxic.
For column E1: NT=Not tainting (tested), T=Tainting test positive.
For column E2: Fp=Persistent floater, F=Floater, S=Sinking substances.
The numerical scales start from 0 (no hazard), while higher numbers reflect increasing hazard.
(GESAMP/EHS Composite List of Hazard Profiles - Hazard evaluation of substances transported by ships)

Section 13 - DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

· Containers may still present a chemical hazard/ danger when empty.
· Return to supplier for reuse/ recycling if possible.
Otherwise:
· If container can not be cleaned sufficiently well to ensure that residuals do not remain or if the container cannot be used to store the same product, then puncture containers, to prevent re-use, and bury at an authorised landfill.
· Where possible retain label warnings and MSDS and observe all notices pertaining to the product.
Legislation addressing waste disposal requirements may differ by country, state and/ or territory. Each user must refer to laws operating in their area. In some areas, certain wastes must be tracked.
A Hierarchy of Controls seems to be common - the user should investigate:
· Reduction
· Reuse
· Recycling
· Disposal (if all else fails)
This material may be recycled if unused, or if it has not been contaminated so as to make it unsuitable for its intended use. Shelf life considerations should also be applied in making decisions of this type. Note that properties of a material may change in use, and recycling or reuse may not always be appropriate.
· DO NOT allow wash water from cleaning or process equipment to enter drains.
· It may be necessary to collect all wash water for treatment before disposal.
· In all cases disposal to sewer may be subject to local laws and regulations and these should be considered first.
· Where in doubt contact the responsible authority.
· Recycle wherever possible.
· Consult manufacturer for recycling options or consult local or regional waste management authority for disposal if no suitable treatment or disposal facility can be identified.
· Treat and neutralise at an approved treatment plant. Treatment should involve: Mixing or slurrying in water; Neutralisation followed by: burial in a land-fill specifically licenced to accept chemical and / or pharmaceutical wastes or Incineration in a licenced apparatus (after admixture with suitable combustible material)
· Decontaminate empty containers. Observe all label safeguards until containers are cleaned and destroyed.

Section 14 - TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION

Labels Required: CORROSIVE

HAZCHEM:

2X (ADG7)

ADG7:

Class or Division: 8 Subsidiary Risk: None
UN No.: 1791 Packing Group: II
Special Provision: None Limited Quantity: 1 L
Portable Tanks & Bulk Containers - Instruction: T7 Portable Tanks & Bulk Containers - Special Provision: TP2, TP24
Packagings & IBCs - Packing Instruction: PP10, B5 Packagings & IBCs - Special Packing Provision: P001, IBC02
Name and Description: HYPOCHLORITE SOLUTION

Land Transport UNDG:

Class or division: 8 Subsidiary risk: None
UN No.: 1791 UN packing group: II
Shipping Name:HYPOCHLORITE SOLUTION

Air Transport IATA:

UN/ID Number: 1791 Packing Group: II
Special provisions: A3
Shipping Name: HYPOCHLORITE SOLUTION †

Maritime Transport IMDG:

IMDG Class: 8 IMDG Subrisk: None
UN Number: 1791 Packing Group: II
EMS Number: F-A,S-B Special provisions: None
Limited Quantities: 1 L Marine Pollutant: Yes
Shipping Name: HYPOCHLORITE SOLUTION

 

GESAMP hazard profiles for this material can be found in section 12 of the MSDS.

Section 15 - REGULATORY INFORMATION

POISONS SCHEDULE S6

REGULATIONS

sodium hypochlorite (CAS: 7681-52-9,10022-70-5) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","GESAMP/EHS Composite List - GESAMP Hazard Profiles","IMO IBC Code Chapter 17: Summary of minimum requirements","International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) - High Production Volume List"

Section 16 - OTHER INFORMATION

INGREDIENTS WITH MULTIPLE CAS NUMBERS

Ingredient Name CAS
sodium hypochlorite 7681-52-9, 10022-70-5

 

CONTACT POINT

Paul Milward-Bason
17 Grandview Parade
Moolap 3221
Victoria Australia

 

MSDS SECTION CHANGES

The following table displays the version number of and date on which each section was last changed.

Section Name  Version  Date             Section Name        Version  Date             Section Name  Version  Date
Physical      4        16- Aug- 2007    Acute Health (eye)  4        16- Aug- 2007
Properties

 

■ Classification of the preparation and its individual components has drawn on official and authoritative sources as well as independent review by the Chemwatch Classification committee using available literature references.
A list of reference resources used to assist the committee may be found at:
www.chemwatch.net/references.

 

■ The (M)SDS is a Hazard Communication tool and should be used to assist in the Risk Assessment. Many factors determine whether the reported Hazards are Risks in the workplace or other settings. Risks may be determined by reference to Exposures Scenarios. Scale of use, frequency of use and current or available engineering controls must be considered.

 

 

This document is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, review or
criticism, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written
permission from CHEMWATCH. TEL (+61 3) 9572 4700.

 

Issue Date: 2-Dec-2007

Print Date: 17-Feb-2012

 

 

This is the end of the MSDS.