Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet

Issue Date: 3-May-2010



Version No:6





CORROSIVE SOLID, ACIDIC, INORGANIC, N.O.S.(contains sodium hydrogen sulfate)


Flux for decomposing minerals; substitute for sulfuric acid in dyeing; disinfectant; manufacture of sodium hydrosulfide, sodium sulfate, and soda alum; liberating carbon dioxide in carbonic acid baths. Technical grades are used for pickling metals, carbonizing wool, bleaching and swelling leather, manufacture of magnesia cement.


Company: Sigma- Aldrich Pty Ltd Company: Multichem Pty Ltd
Address: Address:
12 Anella Avenue Level 1, 132 Gwynne Street
Castle Hill Richmond
NSW, 2154 VIC, 3121
Australia Australia
Telephone: +61 2 9841 0555 Telephone: +61 3 9853 2911
Telephone: 1800 800 097 Emergency Tel: 1800 039 008 (24 hours)
Emergency Tel: +44 8701906777
Emergency Tel: 1800 448 456
Fax: +61 2 9841 0500
Website: www.sigma-
Company: Consolidated Alloys
32 Industrial Avenue
VIC, 3074
Telephone: +61 3 9359 5811
Fax: +61 3 9359 4076





Flammability 0
Toxicity 0
Body Contact 3
Reactivity 0
Chronic 2
SCALE: Min/Nil=0 Low=1 Moderate=2 High=3 Extreme=4


■ Causes burns. • Keep locked up.
■ Risk of serious damage to eyes. • Do not breathe dust.
■ Cumulative effects may result following exposure*. • Avoid contact with skin.
* (limited evidence). • Avoid contact with eyes.
• Wear suitable protective clothing.
• Wear suitable gloves.
• Wear eye/ face protection.
• To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use water.
• Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
• In case of contact with eyes, rinse with plenty of water and contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre.
• In case of accident or if you feel unwell, IMMEDIATELY contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre (show label if possible).
• This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.



sodium hydrogen sulfate 7681-38-1 >98
hydrolyses to
sulfuric acid 7664-93-9



· For advice, contact a Poisons Information Centre or a doctor at once.
· Urgent hospital treatment is likely to be needed.
· If swallowed do NOT induce vomiting.
· If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain open airway and prevent aspiration.
· Observe the patient carefully.
· Never give liquid to a person showing signs of being sleepy or with reduced awareness; i.e. becoming unconscious.
· Give water to rinse out mouth, then provide liquid slowly and as much as casualty can comfortably drink.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.


■ If this product comes in contact with the eyes:
· Immediately hold eyelids apart and flush the eye continuously with running water.
· Ensure complete irrigation of the eye by keeping eyelids apart and away from eye and moving the eyelids by occasionally lifting the upper and lower lids.
· Continue flushing until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre or a doctor, or for at least 15 minutes.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.
· Removal of contact lenses after an eye injury should only be undertaken by skilled personnel.


■ If skin or hair contact occurs:
· Immediately flush body and clothes with large amounts of water, using safety shower if available.
· Quickly remove all contaminated clothing, including footwear.
· Wash skin and hair with running water. Continue flushing with water until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor.


· If fumes or combustion products are inhaled remove from contaminated area.
· Lay patient down. Keep warm and rested.
· Prostheses such as false teeth, which may block airway, should be removed, where possible, prior to initiating first aid procedures.
· Apply artificial respiration if not breathing, preferably with a demand valve resuscitator, bag-valve mask device, or pocket mask as trained. Perform CPR if necessary.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor, without delay.
· Inhalation of vapours or aerosols (mists, fumes) may cause lung oedema.
· Corrosive substances may cause lung damage (e.g. lung oedema, fluid in the lungs).
· As this reaction may be delayed up to 24 hours after exposure, affected individuals need complete rest (preferably in semi-recumbent posture) and must be kept under medical observation even if no symptoms are (yet) manifested.
· Before any such manifestation, the administration of a spray containing a dexamethasone derivative or beclomethasone derivative may be considered.
This must definitely be left to a doctor or person authorised by him/her.


■ Treat symptomatically.
For acute or short term repeated exposures to strong acids:
· Airway problems may arise from laryngeal edema and inhalation exposure. Treat with 100% oxygen initially.
· Respiratory distress may require cricothyroidotomy if endotracheal intubation is contraindicated by excessive swelling
· Intravenous lines should be established immediately in all cases where there is evidence of circulatory compromise.
· Strong acids produce a coagulation necrosis characterised by formation of a coagulum (eschar) as a result of the dessicating action of the acid on proteins in
specific tissues.
· Immediate dilution (milk or water) within 30 minutes post ingestion is recommended.
· DO NOT attempt to neutralise the acid since exothermic reaction may extend the corrosive injury.
·  Be careful to avoid further vomit since re- exposure of the mucosa to the acid is harmful. Limit fluids to one or two glasses in an adult.
· Charcoal has no place in acid management.
· Some authors suggest the use of lavage within 1 hour of ingestion.
· Skin lesions require copious saline irrigation. Treat chemical burns as thermal burns with non- adherent gauze and wrapping.
· Deep second- degree burns may benefit from topical silver sulfadiazine.
· Eye injuries require retraction of the eyelids to ensure thorough irrigation of the conjuctival cul- de- sacs. Irrigation should last at least 20- 30 minutes. DO
NOT use neutralising agents or any other additives. Several litres of saline are required.
· Cycloplegic drops, (1% cyclopentolate for short- term use or 5% homatropine for longer term use) antibiotic drops, vasoconstrictive agents or artificial tears may
be indicated dependent on the severity of the injury.
· Steroid eye drops should only be administered with the approval of a consulting ophthalmologist).
[Ellenhorn and Barceloux: Medical Toxicology].



· Dry chemical powder.
· BCF (where regulations permit).
· Carbon dioxide.


· Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
· Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus.
· Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course.
· Use fire fighting procedures suitable for surrounding area.
· Do not approach containers suspected to be hot.
· Cool fire exposed containers with water spray from a protected location.
· If safe to do so, remove containers from path of fire.
· Equipment should be thoroughly decontaminated after use.


· Non combustible.
· Not considered to be a significant fire risk.
· Acids may react with metals to produce hydrogen, a highly flammable and explosive gas.
· Heating may cause expansion or decomposition leading to violent rupture of containers.
· May emit corrosive, poisonous fumes. May emit acrid smoke.
Decomposition may produce toxic fumes of: sulfur oxides (SOx), metal oxides.


■ None known.



Personal Protective Equipment

Breathing apparatus.
Gas tight chemical resistant suit.
Limit exposure duration to 1 BA set 30 mins.



· Drains for storage or use areas should have retention basins for pH adjustments and dilution of spills
before discharge or disposal of material.
· Check regularly for spills and leaks.
· Clean up all spills immediately.
· Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
· Wear protective clothing, gloves, safety glasses and dust respirator.
· Use dry clean up procedures and avoid generating dust.
· Sweep up or
· Vacuum up (consider explosion- proof machines designed to be grounded during storage and use).
· Place in clean drum then flush area with water.


· Clear area of personnel and move upwind.
· Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
· Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus.
· Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course.
· Consider evacuation (or protect in place).
· Stop leak if safe to do so.
· Contain spill with sand, earth or vermiculite.
· Collect recoverable product into labelled containers for recycling.
· Neutralise/decontaminate residue (see Section 13 for specific agent).
· Collect solid residues and seal in labelled drums for disposal.
· Wash area and prevent runoff into drains.
· After clean up operations, decontaminate and launder all protective clothing and equipment before storing
and re- using.
· If contamination of drains or waterways occurs, advise emergency services.


From IERG (Canada/Australia)
Isolation Distance 25 metres
Downwind Protection Distance 250 metres
IERG Number 37


1 PROTECTIVE ACTION ZONE is defined as the area in which people are at risk of harmful exposure. This zone assumes that random changes in wind direction confines the
vapour plume to an area within 30 degrees on either side of the predominant wind direction, resulting in a crosswind protective action distance equal to the downwind
protective action distance.
2 PROTECTIVE ACTIONS should be initiated to the extent possible, beginning with those closest to the spill and working away from the site in the downwind direction.
Within the protective action zone a level of vapour concentration may exist resulting in nearly all unprotected persons becoming incapacitated and unable to take
protective action and/or incurring serious or irreversible health effects.
3 INITIAL ISOLATION ZONE is determined as an area, including upwind of the incident, within which a high probability of localised wind reversal may expose nearly all
persons without appropriate protection to life- threatening concentrations of the material.
4 SMALL SPILLS involve a leaking package of 200 litres (55 US gallons) or less, such as a drum (jerrican or box with inner containers). Larger packages leaking less
than 200 litres and compressed gas leaking from a small cylinder are also considered " small spills" .
LARGE SPILLS involve many small leaking packages or a leaking package of greater than 200 litres, such as a cargo tank, portable tank or a " one- tonne" compressed
gas cylinder.
5 Guide 154 is taken from the US DOT emergency response guide book.
6 IERG information is derived from CANUTEC - Transport Canada.


Personal Protective Equipment advice is contained in Section 8 of the MSDS.



· Avoid all personal contact, including inhalation.
· Wear protective clothing when risk of exposure occurs.
· Use in a well-ventilated area.
· WARNING: To avoid violent reaction, ALWAYS add material to water and NEVER water to material.
· Avoid smoking, naked lights or ignition sources.
· Avoid contact with incompatible materials.
· When handling, DO NOT eat, drink or smoke.
· Keep containers securely sealed when not in use.
· Avoid physical damage to containers.
· Always wash hands with soap and water after handling.
· Work clothes should be laundered separately. Launder contaminated clothing before re-use.
· Use good occupational work practice.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.
· Atmosphere should be regularly checked against established exposure standards to ensure safe working conditions are maintained.


· DO NOT use aluminium or galvanised containers.
· Check regularly for spills and leaks.
· Glass container is suitable for laboratory quantities.
· Lined metal can, lined metal pail/ can.
· Plastic pail.
· Polyliner drum.
· Packing as recommended by manufacturer.
· Check all containers are clearly labelled and free from leaks.
For low viscosity materials
· Drums and jerricans must be of the non-removable head type.
· Where a can is to be used as an inner package, the can must have a screwed enclosure.
For materials with a viscosity of at least 2680 cSt. (23 deg. C) and solids (between 15 C deg. and 40 deg C.):
· Removable head packaging;
· Cans with friction closures and
· low pressure tubes and cartridges
may be used.
Where combination packages are used, and the inner packages are of glass, porcelain or stoneware, there must be sufficient inert cushioning material in contact with inner and outer packages unless the outer packaging is a close fitting moulded plastic box and the substances are not incompatible with the plastic.


· Inorganic acids are generally soluble in water with the release of hydrogen ions. The resulting solutions have pH's of less than 7.0.
· Inorganic acids neutralise chemical bases (for example: amines and inorganic hydroxides) to form salts - neutralisation can generate dangerously large amounts of heat in small spaces.
· The dissolution of inorganic acids in water or the dilution of their concentrated solutions with additional water may generate significant heat.
· The addition of water to inorganic acids often generates sufficient heat in the small region of mixing to cause some of the water to boil explosively. The resulting "bumping" can spatter the acid.
· Inorganic acids react with active metals, including such structural metals as aluminum and iron, to release hydrogen, a flammable gas.
· Inorganic acids can initiate the polymerisation of certain classes of organic compounds.
· Inorganic acids react with cyanide compounds to release gaseous hydrogen cyanide.
· Inorganic acids generate flammable and/or toxic gases in contact with dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, nitriles, sulfides, and strong reducing agents. Additional gas-generating reactions occur with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), and even carbonates.
· Acids often catalyse (increase the rate of) chemical reactions.
· Metals and their oxides or salts may react violently with chlorine trifluoride and bromine trifluoride.
· These trifluorides are hypergolic oxidisers. They ignites on contact (without external source of heat or ignition) with recognised fuels - contact with these materials, following an ambient or slightly elevated temperature, is often violent and may produce ignition.
· The state of subdivision may affect the results.
Avoid storage with calcium hypochlorite, aluminium, alcohols.


Chemical Name                   Container Type
Sodium Bisulfate                " 304 stainless steel" , " Acetal (Delrinr)" , Aluminum, Brass, "
                                Carbon Steel" , " Carpenter 20" , " Cast iron" , Copper, Polyurethane


· Plastic bag
· NOTE: Bags should be stacked, blocked, interlocked, and limited in height so that they are stable and secure against sliding or collapse.
· Store in original containers.
· Keep containers securely sealed.
· Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.
· Store away from incompatible materials and foodstuff containers.
· Protect containers against physical damage and check regularly for leaks.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.



+ + + + X +


+: May be stored together
O: May be stored together with specific preventions
X: Must not be stored together




SourceMaterialTWA mg/m³STEL mg/m³
Australia Exposure Standardssulfuric acid (Sulphuric acid)13
The following materials had no OELs on our records
• sodium hydrogen sulfate: CAS:7681-38-1 CAS:10034-88-5



Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
sulfuric acid|1830 15
Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
sulfuric acid|1830 15



■ NOTE: Detector tubes for sulfuric acid, measuring in excess of 1 mg/m3, are commercially available.
Based on controlled inhalation studies the TLV- TWA is thought to be protective against the significant risk of pulmonary irritation and incorporates a margin of
safety so as to prevent injury to the skin and teeth seen in battery workers acclimatised to workplace concentrations of 16 mg/m3. Experimental evidence in normal
unacclimated humans indicates the recognition, by all subjects, of odour, taste or irritation at 3 mg/m3 or 5 mg/m3. All subjects reported these levels to be
objectionable but to varying degrees.
CEL TWA: 2.5 mg/m3 [Manufacturer]
■ Sensory irritants are chemicals that produce temporary and undesirable side- effects on the eyes, nose or throat. Historically occupational exposure standards for
these irritants have been based on observation of workers' responses to various airborne concentrations. Present day expectations require that nearly every
individual should be protected against even minor sensory irritation and exposure standards are established using uncertainty factors or safety factors of 5 to 10 or
more. On occasion animal no- observable- effect- levels (NOEL) are used to determine these limits where human results are unavailable. An additional approach,
typically used by the TLV committee (USA) in determining respiratory standards for this group of chemicals, has been to assign ceiling values (TLV C) to rapidly
acting irritants and to assign short- term exposure limits (TLV STELs) when the weight of evidence from irritation, bioaccumulation and other endpoints combine to
warrant such a limit. In contrast the MAK Commission (Germany) uses a five- category system based on intensive odour, local irritation, and elimination half- life.
However this system is being replaced to be consistent with the European Union (EU) Scientific Committee for Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL); this is more
closely allied to that of the USA.
OSHA (USA) concluded that exposure to sensory irritants can:
· cause inflammation
· cause increased susceptibility to other irritants and infectious agents
· lead to permanent injury or dysfunction
· permit greater absorption of hazardous substances and
· acclimate the worker to the irritant warning properties of these substances thus increasing the risk of overexposure.




· Safety glasses with unperforated side shields may be used where continuous eye protection is desirable, as in laboratories; spectacles are not sufficient where
complete eye protection is needed such as when handling bulk- quantities, where there is a danger of splashing, or if the material may be under pressure
· Chemical goggles.whenever there is a danger of the material coming in contact with the eyes; goggles must be properly fitted
· Full face shield (20 cm, 8 in minimum) may be required for supplementary but never for primary protection of eyes; these afford face protection.
· Alternatively a gas mask may replace splash goggles and face shields.
· Contact lenses may pose a special hazard; soft contact lenses may absorb and concentrate irritants. A written policy document, describing the wearing of lens or
restrictions on use, should be created for each workplace or task. This should include a review of lens absorption and adsorption for the class of chemicals in use
and an account of injury experience. Medical and first- aid personnel should be trained in their removal and suitable equipment should be readily available. In the
event of chemical exposure, begin eye irrigation immediately and remove contact lens as soon as practicable. Lens should be removed at the first signs of eye redness
or irritation - lens should be removed in a clean environment only after workers have washed hands thoroughly. [CDC NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 59], [AS/NZS
1336 or national equivalent].


· Elbow length PVC gloves.
Suitability and durability of glove type is dependent on usage. Important factors in the selection of gloves include:
· frequency and duration of contact,
· chemical resistance of glove material,
· glove thickness and
· dexterity
Select gloves tested to a relevant standard (e.g. Europe EN 374, US F739, AS/NZS 2161.1 or national equivalent).
· When prolonged or frequently repeated contact may occur, a glove with a protection class of 5 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 240 minutes according to EN
374, AS/NZS 2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· When only brief contact is expected, a glove with a protection class of 3 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 60 minutes according to EN 374, AS/NZS
2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· Contaminated gloves should be replaced.
Gloves must only be worn on clean hands. After using gloves, hands should be washed and dried thoroughly. Application of a non- perfumed moisturiser is recommended.


· Overalls.
· PVC Apron.
· PVC protective suit may be required if exposure severe.
· Eyewash unit.
· Ensure there is ready access to a safety shower.


•Type E- P Filter of sufficient capacity. (AS/NZS 1716 & 1715, EN 143:2000 & 149:2001, ANSI Z88 or national equivalent)
· Respirators may be necessary when engineering and administrative controls do not adequately prevent exposures.
· The decision to use respiratory protection should be based on professional judgment that takes into account toxicity information, exposure measurement data, and
frequency and likelihood of the worker' s exposure - ensure users are not subject to high thermal loads which may result in heat stress or distress due to personal
protective equipment (powered, positive flow, full face apparatus may be an option).
· Published occupational exposure limits, where they exist, will assist in determining the adequacy of the selected respiratory . These may be government mandated or
vendor recommended.
· Certified respirators will be useful for protecting workers from inhalation of particulates when properly selected and fit tested as part of a complete respiratory
protection program.
· Use approved positive flow mask if significant quantities of dust becomes airborne.
· Try to avoid creating dust conditions.
The local concentration of material, quantity and conditions of use determine the type of personal protective equipment required. For further information consult
site specific CHEMWATCH data (if available), or your Occupational Health and Safety Advisor.


■ Engineering controls are used to remove a hazard or place a barrier between the worker and the hazard. Well- designed engineering controls can be highly effective
in protecting workers and will typically be independent of worker interactions to provide this high level of protection.
The basic types of engineering controls are:
Process controls which involve changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk.
Enclosure and/or isolation of emission source which keeps a selected hazard " physically" away from the worker and ventilation that strategically " adds" and "
removes" air in the work environment. Ventilation can remove or dilute an air contaminant if designed properly. The design of a ventilation system must match the
particular process and chemical or contaminant in use.
Employers may need to use multiple types of controls to prevent employee overexposure.
Local exhaust ventilation usually required. If risk of overexposure exists, wear approved respirator. Correct fit is essential to obtain adequate protection.
Supplied- air type respirator may be required in special circumstances. Correct fit is essential to ensure adequate protection.
An approved self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) may be required in some situations.
Provide adequate ventilation in warehouse or closed storage area. Air contaminants generated in the workplace possess varying " escape" velocities which, in turn,
determine the " capture velocities" of fresh circulating air required to effectively remove the contaminant.
Type of Contaminant: Air Speed:
solvent, vapours, degreasing etc., evaporating from tank (in still air). 0.25-0.5 m/s (50-100 f/min.)
aerosols, fumes from pouring operations, intermittent container filling, low speed conveyer transfers, welding, spray drift, plating acid fumes, pickling (released at low velocity into zone of active generation) 0.5-1 m/s (100-200 f/min.)
direct spray, spray painting in shallow booths, drum filling, conveyer loading, crusher dusts, gas discharge (active generation into zone of rapid air motion) 1-2.5 m/s (200-500 f/min.)
grinding, abrasive blasting, tumbling, high speed wheel generated dusts (released at high initial velocity into zone of very high rapid air motion). 2.5-10 m/s (500-2000 f/min.)
Within each range the appropriate value depends on:
Lower end of the range Upper end of the range
1: Room air currents minimal or favourable to capture 1: Disturbing room air currents
2: Contaminants of low toxicity or of nuisance value only. 2: Contaminants of high toxicity
3: Intermittent, low production. 3: High production, heavy use
4: Large hood or large air mass in motion 4: Small hood-local control only
Simple theory shows that air velocity falls rapidly with distance away from the opening of a simple extraction pipe. Velocity generally decreases with the square of distance from the extraction point (in simple cases). Therefore the air speed at the extraction point should be adjusted, accordingly, after reference to distance from the contaminating source. The air velocity at the extraction fan, for example, should be a minimum of 1- 2 m/s (200- 400 f/min) for extraction of solvents generated in a tank 2 meters distant from the extraction point. Other mechanical considerations, producing performance deficits within the extraction apparatus, make it essential that theoretical air velocities are multiplied by factors of 10 or more when extraction systems are installed or used.



Colourless crystals or white fused lumps; soluble in water (286 g/l). Slightly soluble in alcohol. Common forms include: anhydrous, monohydrate. Anhydrous form is
hygroscopic. Both forms dissolve in water and ionise forming acid solution. Monohydrate melts at 58 C losing water; becoming the anhydrous form.
Properties of monohydrate: Molecular Weight: 138
Melting Range (C): 58 Specific Gravity: 2.1 at 13 C


Mixes with water.


StateDIVIDED SOLIDMolecular Weight120 (138 hydrate)
Melting Range (ºC)>315& 58 hydrateViscosityNot Applicable
Boiling Range (ºC)Decomposes.Solubility in water (g/L)Miscible
Flash Point (ºC)Not ApplicablepH (1% solution)1.4
Decomposition Temp (ºC)Not AvailablepH (as supplied)Not applicable
Autoignition Temp (ºC)Not applicableVapour Pressure (kPa)Negligible
Upper Explosive Limit (%)Not applicableSpecific Gravity (water=1)2.44 & 2.1hydrat
Lower Explosive Limit (%)Not applicableRelative Vapour Density (air=1)Not applicable.
Volatile Component (%vol)NegligibleEvaporation RateNot applicable


StateDIVIDED SOLIDMolecular Weight120 (138 hydrate)
Melting Range (ºC)>315& 58 hydrateViscosityNot Applicable
Boiling Range (ºC)Decomposes.Solubility in water (g/L)Miscible
Flash Point (ºC)Not ApplicablepH (1% solution)1.4
Decomposition Temp (ºC)Not AvailablepH (as supplied)Not applicable
Autoignition Temp (ºC)Not applicableVapour Pressure (kPa)Negligible
Upper Explosive Limit (%)Not applicableSpecific Gravity (water=1)2.44 & 2.1hydrat
Lower Explosive Limit (%)Not applicableRelative Vapour Density (air=1)Not applicable.
Volatile Component (%vol)NegligibleEvaporation RateNot applicable



· Contact with alkaline material liberates heat.
· Presence of incompatible materials.
· Product is considered stable.
· Hazardous polymerisation will not occur.

For incompatible materials - refer to Section 7 - Handling and Storage.





■ Ingestion of acidic corrosives may produce burns around and in the mouth, the throat and oesophagus. Immediate pain and difficulties in swallowing and speaking may
also be evident. Swelling of the epiglottis may make it difficult to breathe which may result in suffocation. More severe exposure may result in vomiting blood and
thick mucus, shock, abnormally low blood pressure, fluctuating pulse, shallow respiration and clammy skin, inflammation of stomach wall, and rupture of oesophageal
tissue. Untreated shock may eventually result in kidney failure. Severe cases may result in perforation of the stomach and abdominal cavity with consequent
infection, rigidity and fever. There may be severe narrowing of the oesophageal or pyloric sphincters; this may occur immediately or after a delay of weeks to years.
There may be coma and convulsions, followed by death due to infection of the abdominal cavity, kidneys or lungs.
The material has NOT been classified by EC Directives or other classification systems as " harmful by ingestion" . This is because of the lack of corroborating
animal or human evidence. The material may still be damaging to the health of the individual, following ingestion, especially where pre- existing organ (eg. liver,
kidney) damage is evident. Present definitions of harmful or toxic substances are generally based on doses producing mortality rather than those producing morbidity
(disease, ill- health). Gastrointestinal tract discomfort may produce nausea and vomiting. In an occupational setting however, ingestion of insignificant quantities
is not thought to be cause for concern.
Sulfates are not well absorbed orally, but can cause diarrhoea.


■ If applied to the eyes, this material causes severe eye damage.
Direct eye contact with acid corrosives may produce pain, tears, sensitivity to light and burns. Mild burns of the epithelia generally recover rapidly and
completely. Severe burns produce long- lasting and possibly irreversible damage. The appearance of the burn may not be apparent for several weeks after the initial
contact. The cornea may ultimately become deeply opaque resulting in blindness.


■ Skin contact with acidic corrosives may result in pain and burns; these may be deep with distinct edges and may heal slowly with the formation of scar tissue.
Skin contact is not thought to have harmful health effects (as classified under EC Directives); the material may still produce health damage following entry through
wounds, lesions or abrasions.
Open cuts, abraded or irritated skin should not be exposed to this material.
Entry into the blood- stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use
of the material and ensure that any external damage is suitably protected.


■ The material can cause respiratory irritation in some persons. The body' s response to such irritation can cause further lung damage.
Corrosive acids can cause irritation of the respiratory tract, with coughing, choking and mucous membrane damage. There may be dizziness, headache, nausea and
weakness. Swelling of the lungs can occur, either immediately or after a delay; symptoms of this include chest tightness, shortness of breath, frothy phlegm and
cyanosis. Lack of oxygen can cause death hours after onset.
Persons with impaired respiratory function, airway diseases and conditions such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis, may incur further disability if excessive
concentrations of particulate are inhaled.
If prior damage to the circulatory or nervous systems has occurred or if kidney damage has been sustained, proper screenings should be conducted on individuals who
may be exposed to further risk if handling and use of the material result
in excessive exposures.
High concentrations cause inflamed airways and watery swellingof the lungs with oedema.


■ Repeated or prolonged exposure to acids may result in the erosion of teeth, swelling and/or ulceration of mouth lining. Irritation of airways to lung, with cough,
and inflammation of lung tissue often occurs. Chronic exposure may inflame the skin or conjunctiva.
Long- term exposure to respiratory irritants may result in disease of the airways involving difficult breathing and related systemic problems.
Substance accumulation, in the human body, may occur and may cause some concern following repeated or long- term occupational exposure.
Long term exposure to high dust concentrations may cause changes in lung function i.e. pneumoconiosis; caused by particles less than 0.5 micron penetrating and
remaining in the lung. Prime symptom is breathlessness; lung shadows show on X- ray.


■ unless otherwise specified data extracted from RTECS - Register of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
■ Asthma- like symptoms may continue for months or even years after exposure to the material ceases. This may be due to a non- allergenic condition known as reactive
airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) which can occur following exposure to high levels of highly irritating compound. Key criteria for the diagnosis of RADS include
the absence of preceding respiratory disease, in a non- atopic individual, with abrupt onset of persistent asthma- like symptoms within minutes to hours of a
documented exposure to the irritant. A reversible airflow pattern, on spirometry, with the presence of moderate to severe bronchial hyperreactivity on methacholine
challenge testing and the lack of minimal lymphocytic inflammation, without eosinophilia, have also been included in the criteria for diagnosis of RADS. RADS (or
asthma) following an irritating inhalation is an infrequent disorder with rates related to the concentration of and duration of exposure to the irritating substance.
Industrial bronchitis, on the other hand, is a disorder that occurs as result of exposure due to high concentrations of irritating substance (often particulate in
nature) and is completely reversible after exposure ceases. The disorder is characterised by dyspnea, cough and mucus production.
Oral (rat) LD50: 2828 mg/kg [CCINFO]
■ The material may produce moderate eye irritation leading to inflammation. Repeated or prolonged exposure to irritants may produce conjunctivitis. The material may produce respiratory tract irritation, and result in damage to the lung including reduced lung function. The material may cause skin irritation after prolonged or repeated exposure and may produce on contact skin redness, swelling, the production of vesicles, scaling and thickening of the skin. SULFURIC ACID:
Oral (rat) LD50: 2140 mg/kg Eye (rabbit): 1.38 mg SEVERE
Inhalation (rat) LC50: 510 mg/m³/2h Eye (rabbit): 5 mg/30sec SEVERE
Inhalation (human) TCLo: 3 mg/m³/24w
■ WARNING: For inhalation exposure ONLY: This substance has been classified by the IARC as Group 1: CARCINOGENIC TO HUMANS. Occupational exposures to strong inorganic acid mists of sulfuric acid:



Strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulfuric acid (see Acid mists)International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC MonographsGroup
Acid mists, strong inorganicInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC MonographsGroup1



■ DO NOT discharge into sewer or waterways.
■ Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water courses.
■ for inorganic sulfates: Environmental fate: Data from tap water studies with human volunteers indicate that sulfates produce a laxative effect at concentrations of 1000 - 1200 mg/litre, but no increase in diarrhoea, dehydration or weight loss. The presence of sulfate in drinking- water can also result in a noticeable taste; the lowest taste threshold concentration for sulfate is approximately 250 mg/litre as the sodium salt. Sulfate may also contribute to the corrosion of distribution systems. No health- based guideline value for sulfate in drinking water is proposed. However, there is an increasing likelihood of complaints arising from a noticeable taste as concentrations in water increase above 500 mg/litre. Sulfates are removed from the air by both dry and wet deposition processes. Wet deposition processes including rain- out (a process that occurs within the clouds) and washout (removal by precipitation below the clouds) contribute to the removal of sulfate from the atmosphere. In soil, the inorganic sulfates can adsorb to soil particles or leach into surface water and groundwater. Sulfates can be taken up by plants and be incorporated into the parenchyma of the plant. Sulfate in water can also be reduced by sulfate bacteria (Thiobacilli) which use them as a source of energy. In anaerobic environments sulfate is biologically reduced to (hydrogen) sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria, or incorporated into living organisms as source of sulfur, and thereby included in the sulfur cycle. Sodium sulfate is not reactive in aqueous solution at room temperature. Sodium sulfate will completely dissolve, ionise and distribute across the entire planetary " aquasphere" . Some sulfates may eventually be deposited, the majority of sulfates participate in the sulfur cycle in which natural and industrial sodium sulfate are not distinguishable The BCF of sodium sulfate is very low and therefore significant bioconcentration is not expected. Sodium and sulfate ions are essential to all living organisms and their intracellular and extracellular concentrations are actively regulated. However some plants (e.g. corn and Kochia Scoparia), are capable of accumulating sulfate to concentrations that are potentially toxic to ruminants. Ecotoxicity: For sulfate in general: Fish LC50: toxic from 7000 mg/l Bacteria: toxic from 2500 mg/l Algae were shown to be the most sensitive to sodium sulfate; EC50 120 h = 1, 900 mg/l. For invertebrates (Daphnia magna) the EC50 48 h = 4, 580 mg/l and fish appeared to be the least sensitive with a LC50 96h = 7, 960 mg/l for Pimephales promelas. Activated sludge showed a very low sensitivity to sodium sulfate. There was no effect up to 8 g/l. Sodium sulfate is not very toxic to terrestrial plants. Picea banksiana was the most sensitive species, an effect was seen at 1.4 g/l. Sediment dwelling organisms were not very sensitive either, with an LC50 96h = 660 mg/l for Trycorythus sp. Overall it can be concluded that sodium sulfate has no acute adverse effect on aquatic and sediment dwelling organisms. Toxicity to terrestrial plants is also low. No data were found for long term toxicity. The acute studies all show a toxicity of sodium sulfate higher than 100 mg/l, no bioaccumulation is expected, . Metal- containing inorganic substances generally have negligible vapour pressure and are not expected to partition to air. Once released to surface waters and moist soils their fate depends on solubility and dissociation in water. Environmental processes (such as oxidation and the presence of acids or bases) may transform insoluble metals to more soluble ionic forms. Microbiological processes may also transform insoluble metals to more soluble forms. Such ionic species may bind to dissolved ligands or sorb to solid particles in aquatic or aqueous media. A significant proportion of dissolved/ sorbed metals will end up in sediments through the settling of suspended particles. The remaining metal ions can then be taken up by aquatic organisms. When released to dry soil most metals will exhibit limited mobility and remain in the upper layer; some will leach locally into ground water and/ or surface water ecosystems when soaked by rain or melt ice. Environmental processes may also be important in changing solubilities. Even though many metals show few toxic effects at physiological pHs, transformation may introduce new or magnified effects. A metal ion is considered infinitely persistent because it cannot degrade further. The current state of science does not allow for an unambiguous interpretation of various measures of bioaccumulation. The counter- ion may also create heath and environmental concerns once isolated from the metal. Under normal physiological conditions the counter- ion may be essentially insoluble and may not be bioavailable. Environmental processes may enhance bioavailability. SULFURIC ACID:
■ Sulfuric acid is soluble in water and remains indefinitely in the environment as sulfate. Large discharges may contribute to the acidification of water and be fatal to aquatic life and soil micro- organisms. Large discharges may also contribute to the acidification of effluent treatment systems and injure sewage treatment organisms. In water, sulfuric acid dissociates, and the sulfate anion may combine with other cations. In soil, the ions from sulfuric acid can adsorb to soil particles or leach into surface water and groundwater. Sulfates can be taken up by plants and be incorporated into the parenchyma of the plant. The ions (sulfate, hydrogen) can adsorb to soil particles or be converted to gases. Anaerobic bacteria in sediments and soil can reduce sulfate to sulfur and hydrogen sulfide. Sulfates, including sulfuric acid, are removed from the air by both dry and wet deposition processes. Wet deposition processes including rain- out (a process that occurs within the clouds) and washout (removal by precipitation below the clouds) contribute to the removal of sulfate from the atmosphere. In the stratosphere, sulfuric acid aerosols have lifetimes of about 14 and 2.4 days at altitudes of 15 and 20 km, respectively. At cloud level, the residence time is about 6 days, with shorter residence times in surface air. Sulfuric acid is soluble in water and remains indefinitely in the environment as sulfate. Large discharges may contribute to the acidification of water and be fatal to aquatic life and soil micro- organisms. Large discharges may contribute to the acidification of effluent treatment systems and injure sewage treatment organisms. [ICI UK]


IngredientPersistence: Water/SoilPersistence: AirBioaccumulationMobility
sodium hydrogen sulfateHIGHNo Data AvailableLOWHIGH
sulfuric acidNo Data AvailableNo Data AvailableLOW



■ Legislation addressing waste disposal requirements may differ by country, state and/ or territory. Each user must refer to laws operating in their area. In some areas, certain wastes must be tracked.
A Hierarchy of Controls seems to be common - the user should investigate:
· Reduction
· Reuse
· Recycling
· Disposal (if all else fails)
This material may be recycled if unused, or if it has not been contaminated so as to make it unsuitable for its intended use. Shelf life considerations should also be applied in making decisions of this type. Note that properties of a material may change in use, and recycling or reuse may not always be appropriate.
· DO NOT allow wash water from cleaning or process equipment to enter drains.
· It may be necessary to collect all wash water for treatment before disposal.
· In all cases disposal to sewer may be subject to local laws and regulations and these should be considered first.
· Where in doubt contact the responsible authority.
Recycle wherever possible.
· Consult manufacturer for recycling options or consult local or regional waste management authority for disposal if no suitable treatment or disposal facility can be identified.
· Treat and neutralise at an approved treatment plant. Treatment should involve: Mixing or slurrying in water; Neutralisation with soda-lime or soda-ash followed by: burial in a land-fill specifically licenced to accept chemical and / or pharmaceutical wastes or Incineration in a licenced apparatus (after admixture with suitable combustible material)
· Decontaminate empty containers with 5% aqueous sodium hydroxide or soda ash, followed by water. Observe all label safeguards until containers are cleaned and destroyed.


Labels Required: CORROSIVE


2X (ADG7)


Class or Division: 8 Subsidiary Risk: None
UN No.: 3260 Packing Group: II
Special Provision: 274 Limited Quantity: 1 kg
Portable Tanks & Bulk Containers - Instruction: T3 Portable Tanks & Bulk Containers - Special Provision: TP33
Packagings & IBCs - Packing Instruction: B2, B4 Packagings & IBCs - Special Packing Provision: P002, IBC08
Name and Description: CORROSIVE SOLID, ACIDIC, INORGANIC, N.O.S. (contains sodium hydrogen sulfate)

Land Transport UNDG:

Class or division: 8 Subsidiary risk: None
UN No.: 3260 UN packing group: II
Shipping Name:CORROSIVE SOLID, ACIDIC, INORGANIC, N.O.S. (contains sodium hydrogen sulfate)

Air Transport IATA:

UN/ID Number: 3260 Packing Group: II
Special provisions: A3

Maritime Transport IMDG:

IMDG Class: 8 IMDG Subrisk: None
UN Number: 3260 Packing Group: II
EMS Number: F-A,S-B Special provisions: 274
Limited Quantities: 1 kg
Shipping Name: CORROSIVE SOLID, ACIDIC, INORGANIC, N.O.S.(contains sodium hydrogen sulfate)




sodium hydrogen sulfate (CAS: 7681-38-1,10034-88-5) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix E (Part 2)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix F (Part 3)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 5","International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) - High Production Volume List"

Regulations for ingredients

sulfuric acid (CAS: 7664-93-9) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 9 Precursor substances - Part 2","Australia Exposure Standards","Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)","Australia Illicit Drug Reagents/Essential Chemicals - Category III","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","Australia National Pollutant Inventory","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix E (Part 2)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix F (Part 3)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 6","GESAMP/EHS Composite List - GESAMP Hazard Profiles","IMO IBC Code Chapter 17: Summary of minimum requirements","IMO MARPOL 73/78 (Annex II) - List of Noxious Liquid Substances Carried in Bulk","International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC Monographs","International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations","International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations - Prohibited List","International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) - High Production Volume List","United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances - Table II","United Nations List of Precursors and Chemicals Frequently used in the Illicit Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Under International Control (Red List) - Table II"



Ingredient Name CAS
sodium hydrogen sulfate 7681-38-1, 10034-88-5



Paul Milward-Bason
17 Grandview Parade
Moolap 3221
Victoria Australia



The following table displays the version number of and date on which each section was last changed.

Section Name        Version  Date             Section Name        Version  Date             Section Name        Version  Date
Ingredients         4        7- Oct- 2008     Storage (storage    5        21- Apr- 2009    Instability         4        7- Oct- 2008
                                              incompatibility)                              Condition
Advice to Doctor    4        7- Oct- 2008     Storage (storage    4        7- Oct- 2008     Acute Health (eye)  4        7- Oct- 2008
First Aid           4        7- Oct- 2008     Storage (suitable   4        7- Oct- 2008     Acute Health        4        7- Oct- 2008
(inhaled)                                     container)                                    (inhaled)
First Aid (skin)    4        7- Oct- 2008     Engineering         4        7- Oct- 2008     Acute Health        4        7- Oct- 2008
                                              Control                                       (skin)
First Aid           4        7- Oct- 2008     Exposure Standard   5        21- Apr- 2009    Acute Health        5        21- Apr- 2009
(swallowed)                                                                                 (swallowed)
Fire Fighter (fire  4        7- Oct- 2008     Personal            4        7- Oct- 2008     Chronic Health      4        7- Oct- 2008
incompatibility)                              Protection (eye)
Fire Fighter        4        7- Oct- 2008     Personal            4        7- Oct- 2008     Toxicity and        4        7- Oct- 2008
(fire/explosion                               Protection                                    Irritation (Other)
hazard)                                       (hands/feet)
Spills (major)      4        7- Oct- 2008     Personal            4        7- Oct- 2008     Environmental       5        21- Apr- 2009
                                              Protection (other)
Spills (minor)      5        21- Apr- 2009    Appearance          6        3- May- 2010     Disposal            4        7- Oct- 2008
Handling Procedure  4        7- Oct- 2008     Physical            4        7- Oct- 2008     Transport           4        7- Oct- 2008


■ Classification of the preparation and its individual components has drawn on official and authoritative sources as well as independent review by the Chemwatch Classification committee using available literature references.
A list of reference resources used to assist the committee may be found at:


■ The (M)SDS is a Hazard Communication tool and should be used to assist in the Risk Assessment. Many factors determine whether the reported Hazards are Risks in the workplace or other settings. Risks may be determined by reference to Exposures Scenarios. Scale of use, frequency of use and current or available engineering controls must be considered.



This document is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, review or
criticism, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written
permission from CHEMWATCH. TEL (+61 3) 9572 4700.


Issue Date: 3-May-2010

Print Date: 17-Feb-2012



This is the end of the MSDS.