Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet

Issue Date: 17-Jun-2011



Version No:6







■ The use of a quantity of material in an unventilated or confined space may result in increased exposure and an irritating atmosphere developing. Before starting consider control of exposure by mechanical ventilation.
For pickling and heavy duty cleaning of metal parts; rust and scale removal. The production of chlorides; neutralising bases; a laboratory reagent. For hydrolyzing starch and proteins in preparations for food. As a catalyst and solvent in organic synthesis. As "spirits of salts" for cleaning of lime and masonry from new brickwork. As flux or flux component for soldering; manufacture of "killed spirits".


Company: Wesfarmers CSBP Ltd Company: Merck Pty Ltd
Address: Address:
PO Box 345 207 Colchester Road
Kwinana Kilsyth
WA, 6167 VIC, 3137
Australia Australia
Telephone: +61 8 9411 8777 Telephone: +61 3 9728 7600
Fax: +61 8 9411 8289 Telephone: 1800 337 460
Email: corporate@csbp.com.au Emergency Tel: +61 3 9728 7600
Website: www.csbp.com.au Fax: +61 3 9728 1351
Email: admin@merck.com.au
Company: Orica Website:
1 Nicholson Street Company: Nalco
Melbourne Address:
VIC, 3000 2 Anderson Street
Australia Botany
Telephone: +61 3 9665 7111 NSW, 2019
Emergency Tel: +1800 033 111 (All Hours) Australia
Fax: +61 3 9665 7937 Telephone: +61 2 9316 3000
Emergency Tel: (1800) 033 111
Fax: +61 2 9666 5292
Website: http://www.sun- masamune.com.au





Flammability 0
Toxicity 3
Body Contact 4
Reactivity 1
Chronic 2
SCALE: Min/Nil=0 Low=1 Moderate=2 High=3 Extreme=4


■ Harmful if swallowed. • Keep locked up.
■ Toxic by inhalation. • Do not breathe gas/ fumes/ vapour/ spray.
■ Causes severe burns. • Avoid contact with skin.
■ Risk of serious damage to eyes. • Avoid contact with eyes.
■ Skin contact may produce health damage*. • Wear suitable protective clothing.
■ Cumulative effects may result following exposure*. • In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
■ Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect*. • Wear suitable gloves.
* (limited evidence). • Wear eye/ face protection.
• Use only in well ventilated areas.
• Keep container in a well ventilated place.
• To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use water.
• Keep container tightly closed.
• This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way.
• Keep away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs.
• Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
• In case of contact with eyes, rinse with plenty of water and contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre.
• In case of accident or if you feel unwell, IMMEDIATELY contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre (show label if possible).
• This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
• In case of accident by inhalation: remove casualty to fresh air and keep at rest.



hydrogen chloride 7647-01-0 30-35
water 7732-18-5 65-70



· For advice, contact a Poisons Information Centre or a doctor at once.
· Urgent hospital treatment is likely to be needed.
· If swallowed do NOT induce vomiting.
· If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain open airway and prevent aspiration.
· Observe the patient carefully.
· Never give liquid to a person showing signs of being sleepy or with reduced awareness; i.e. becoming unconscious.
· Give water to rinse out mouth, then provide liquid slowly and as much as casualty can comfortably drink.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.


■ If this product comes in contact with the eyes:
· Immediately hold eyelids apart and flush the eye continuously with running water.
· Ensure complete irrigation of the eye by keeping eyelids apart and away from eye and moving the eyelids by occasionally lifting the upper and lower lids.
· Continue flushing until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre or a doctor, or for at least 15 minutes.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.
· Removal of contact lenses after an eye injury should only be undertaken by skilled personnel.


■ If skin or hair contact occurs:
· Immediately flush body and clothes with large amounts of water, using safety shower if available.
· Quickly remove all contaminated clothing, including footwear.
· Wash skin and hair with running water. Continue flushing with water until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor.


· If fumes or combustion products are inhaled remove from contaminated area.
· Lay patient down. Keep warm and rested.
· Prostheses such as false teeth, which may block airway, should be removed, where possible, prior to initiating first aid procedures.
· Apply artificial respiration if not breathing, preferably with a demand valve resuscitator, bag-valve mask device, or pocket mask as trained. Perform CPR if necessary.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor, without delay.
· Inhalation of vapours or aerosols (mists, fumes) may cause lung oedema.
· Corrosive substances may cause lung damage (e.g. lung oedema, fluid in the lungs).
· As this reaction may be delayed up to 24 hours after exposure, affected individuals need complete rest (preferably in semi-recumbent posture) and must be kept under medical observation even if no symptoms are (yet) manifested.
· Before any such manifestation, the administration of a spray containing a dexamethasone derivative or beclomethasone derivative may be considered.
This must definitely be left to a doctor or person authorised by him/her.


■ Treat symptomatically.
For acute or short term repeated exposures to strong acids:
· Airway problems may arise from laryngeal edema and inhalation exposure. Treat with 100% oxygen initially.
· Respiratory distress may require cricothyroidotomy if endotracheal intubation is contraindicated by excessive swelling
· Intravenous lines should be established immediately in all cases where there is evidence of circulatory compromise.
· Strong acids produce a coagulation necrosis characterised by formation of a coagulum (eschar) as a result of the dessicating action of the acid on proteins in
specific tissues.
· Immediate dilution (milk or water) within 30 minutes post ingestion is recommended.
· DO NOT attempt to neutralise the acid since exothermic reaction may extend the corrosive injury.
·  Be careful to avoid further vomit since re- exposure of the mucosa to the acid is harmful. Limit fluids to one or two glasses in an adult.
· Charcoal has no place in acid management.
· Some authors suggest the use of lavage within 1 hour of ingestion.
· Skin lesions require copious saline irrigation. Treat chemical burns as thermal burns with non- adherent gauze and wrapping.
· Deep second- degree burns may benefit from topical silver sulfadiazine.
· Eye injuries require retraction of the eyelids to ensure thorough irrigation of the conjuctival cul- de- sacs. Irrigation should last at least 20- 30 minutes. DO
NOT use neutralising agents or any other additives. Several litres of saline are required.
· Cycloplegic drops, (1% cyclopentolate for short- term use or 5% homatropine for longer term use) antibiotic drops, vasoconstrictive agents or artificial tears may
be indicated dependent on the severity of the injury.
· Steroid eye drops should only be administered with the approval of a consulting ophthalmologist).
[Ellenhorn and Barceloux: Medical Toxicology].
If exposure has been severe and/or symptoms marked, observation in hospital for 48 hours should be considered due to possibility of delayed pulmonary oedema.



· Water spray or fog.
· Foam.
· Dry chemical powder.
· BCF (where regulations permit).
· Carbon dioxide.


· Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
· Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus.
· Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course.
· Use fire fighting procedures suitable for surrounding area.
· Do not approach containers suspected to be hot.
· Cool fire exposed containers with water spray from a protected location.
· If safe to do so, remove containers from path of fire.
· Equipment should be thoroughly decontaminated after use.


· Non combustible.
· Not considered to be a significant fire risk.
· Acids may react with metals to produce hydrogen, a highly flammable and explosive gas.
· Heating may cause expansion or decomposition leading to violent rupture of containers.
· May emit corrosive, poisonous fumes. May emit acrid smoke.
Decomposition may produce toxic fumes of: hydrogen chloride.
Contains low boiling substance: Closed containers may rupture due to pressure buildup under fire conditions.


■ None known.



Personal Protective Equipment

Breathing apparatus.
Chemical splash suit.



· Drains for storage or use areas should have retention basins for pH adjustments and dilution of spills
before discharge or disposal of material.
· Check regularly for spills and leaks.
· Clean up all spills immediately.
· Avoid breathing vapours and contact with skin and eyes.
· Control personal contact by using protective equipment.
· Contain and absorb spill with sand, earth, inert material or vermiculite.
· Wipe up.
· Place in a suitable, labelled container for waste disposal.


■ Chemical Class:acidic compounds, inorganic
For release onto land: recommended sorbents listed in order of priority.
foamed glass - pillows 1 throw pitchfork R, P, DGC, RT
expanded mineral - particulate 2 shovel shovel R, I, W, P, DGC
foamed glass - particulate 2 shovel shovel R, W, P, DGC
expanded mineral -particulate 1 blower skiploader R, I, W, P, DGC
foamed glass- particulate 2 blower skiploader R, W, P, DGC
foamed glass - particulate 3 throw skiploader R, W, P, DGC
Legend DGC: Not effective where ground cover is dense R; Not reusable I: Not incinerable P: Effectiveness reduced when rainy RT:Not effective where terrain is rugged SS: Not for use within environmentally sensitive sites W: Effectiveness reduced when windy Reference: Sorbents for Liquid Hazardous Substance Cleanup and Control; R.W Melvold et al: Pollution Technology Review No. 150: Noyes Data Corporation 1988. · Clear area of personnel and move upwind. · Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard. · Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus. · Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course. · Stop leak if safe to do so. · Contain spill with sand, earth or vermiculite. · Collect recoverable product into labelled containers for recycling. · Neutralise/decontaminate residue (see Section 13 for specific agent). · Collect solid residues and seal in labelled drums for disposal. · Wash area and prevent runoff into drains. · After clean up operations, decontaminate and launder all protective clothing and equipment before storing and re- using. · If contamination of drains or waterways occurs, advise emergency services.


From IERG (Canada/Australia)
Isolation Distance 25 metres
Downwind Protection Distance 250 metres
IERG Number 40


1 PROTECTIVE ACTION ZONE is defined as the area in which people are at risk of harmful exposure. This zone assumes that random changes in wind direction confines the
vapour plume to an area within 30 degrees on either side of the predominant wind direction, resulting in a crosswind protective action distance equal to the downwind
protective action distance.
2 PROTECTIVE ACTIONS should be initiated to the extent possible, beginning with those closest to the spill and working away from the site in the downwind direction.
Within the protective action zone a level of vapour concentration may exist resulting in nearly all unprotected persons becoming incapacitated and unable to take
protective action and/or incurring serious or irreversible health effects.
3 INITIAL ISOLATION ZONE is determined as an area, including upwind of the incident, within which a high probability of localised wind reversal may expose nearly all
persons without appropriate protection to life- threatening concentrations of the material.
4 SMALL SPILLS involve a leaking package of 200 litres (55 US gallons) or less, such as a drum (jerrican or box with inner containers). Larger packages leaking less
than 200 litres and compressed gas leaking from a small cylinder are also considered " small spills" .
LARGE SPILLS involve many small leaking packages or a leaking package of greater than 200 litres, such as a cargo tank, portable tank or a " one- tonne" compressed
gas cylinder.
5 Guide 157 is taken from the US DOT emergency response guide book.
6 IERG information is derived from CANUTEC - Transport Canada.


The maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed that nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to one hour WITHOUT experiencing or developing
life- threatening health effects is:
hydrochloric acid 150ppm
irreversible or other serious effects or symptoms which could impair an individual' s ability to take protective action is:
hydrochloric acid 20ppm
other than mild, transient adverse effects without perceiving a clearly defined odour is:
hydrochloric acid 3ppm
American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA)
Ingredients considered according to the following cutoffs
Very Toxic (T+) >= 0.1% Toxic (T) >= 3.0%
R50 >= 0.25% Corrosive (C) >= 5.0%
R51 >= 2.5%
else >= 10%
where percentage is percentage of ingredient found in the mixture


Personal Protective Equipment advice is contained in Section 8 of the MSDS.



■ Contains low boiling substance:
Storage in sealed containers may result in pressure buildup causing violent rupture of containers not rated appropriately.
· Check for bulging containers.
· Vent periodically
· Always release caps or seals slowly to ensure slow dissipation of vapours.
· DO NOT allow clothing wet with material to stay in contact with skin.
· Avoid all personal contact, including inhalation.
· Wear protective clothing when risk of exposure occurs.
· Use in a well-ventilated area.
· WARNING: To avoid violent reaction, ALWAYS add material to water and NEVER water to material.
· Avoid smoking, naked lights or ignition sources.
· Avoid contact with incompatible materials.
· When handling, DO NOT eat, drink or smoke.
· Keep containers securely sealed when not in use.
· Avoid physical damage to containers.
· Always wash hands with soap and water after handling.
· Work clothes should be laundered separately. Launder contaminated clothing before re-use.
· Use good occupational work practice.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.
· Atmosphere should be regularly checked against established exposure standards to ensure safe working conditions are maintained.


· DO NOT use aluminium or galvanised containers.
· Check regularly for spills and leaks.
· Lined metal can, lined metal pail/ can.
· Plastic pail.
· Polyliner drum.
· Packing as recommended by manufacturer.
· Check all containers are clearly labelled and free from leaks.
For low viscosity materials
· Drums and jerricans must be of the non-removable head type.
· Where a can is to be used as an inner package, the can must have a screwed enclosure.
For materials with a viscosity of at least 2680 cSt. (23 deg. C) and solids (between 15 C deg. and 40 deg C.):
· Removable head packaging;
· Cans with friction closures and
· low pressure tubes and cartridges
may be used.
Where combination packages are used, and the inner packages are of glass, porcelain or stoneware, there must be sufficient inert cushioning material in contact with inner and outer packages unless the outer packaging is a close fitting moulded plastic box and the substances are not incompatible with the plastic.


· Inorganic acids are generally soluble in water with the release of hydrogen ions. The resulting solutions have pH's of less than 7.0.
· Inorganic acids neutralise chemical bases (for example: amines and inorganic hydroxides) to form salts - neutralisation can generate dangerously large amounts of heat in small spaces.
· The dissolution of inorganic acids in water or the dilution of their concentrated solutions with additional water may generate significant heat.
· The addition of water to inorganic acids often generates sufficient heat in the small region of mixing to cause some of the water to boil explosively. The resulting "bumping" can spatter the acid.
· Inorganic acids react with active metals, including such structural metals as aluminum and iron, to release hydrogen, a flammable gas.
· Inorganic acids can initiate the polymerisation of certain classes of organic compounds.
· Inorganic acids react with cyanide compounds to release gaseous hydrogen cyanide.
· Inorganic acids generate flammable and/or toxic gases in contact with dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, nitriles, sulfides, and strong reducing agents. Additional gas-generating reactions occur with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), and even carbonates.
· Acids often catalyse (increase the rate of) chemical reactions.
Hydrogen chloride:
· reacts strongly with strong oxidisers (releasing chlorine gas), acetic anhydride, caesium cyanotridecahydrodecaborate(2-), ethylidene difluoride, hexalithium disilicide, metal acetylide, sodium, silicon dioxide, tetraselenium tetranitride, and many organic materials
· is incompatible with alkaline materials, acetic anhydride, acetylides, aliphatic amines, alkanolamines, alkylene oxides, aluminium, aluminium-titanium alloys, aromatic amines, amines, amides, 2-aminoethanol, ammonia, ammonium hydroxide, borides, calcium phosphide, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, chlorosulfonic acid, ethylenediamine, ethyleneimine, epichlorohydrin, formaldehyde, isocyanates, metals, metal oxides, metal hydroxides, metal acetylides, metal carbides, oleum, organic anhydrides, potassium permanganate, perchloric acid, phosphides, 3-propiolactone, silicides, sulfides, sulfites, sulfuric acid, uranium phosphide, vinyl acetate, vinylidene fluoride
· attacks most metals forming flammable hydrogen gas, and some plastics, rubbers and coatings
· reacts with zinc, brass, galvanised iron, aluminium, copper and copper alloys.
· Reacts vigorously with alkalis.
· Reacts with mild steel, galvanised steel / zinc producing hydrogen gas which may form an explosive mixture with air.


Chemical Name                   Container Type
Hydrochloric Acid 100%          " 304 stainless steel" , " 316 stainless steel" , " Acetal (Delrinr)"
                                , Aluminum, Brass, Bronze, " Buna N (Nitrile)" , " Carbon Steel" , "
                                Carpenter 20" , " Cast iron" , Copper, EPDM, " Fluorocarbon (FKM)" ,
                                Hypalonr, " Natural rubber" , Neoprene, NORYLr, Nylon, Polycarbonate,
                                Polyurethane, " PPS (Rytonr)" , PVC, Silicone, Titanium, Tygonr,


· Store in original containers.
· Keep containers securely sealed.
· Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.
· Store away from incompatible materials and foodstuff containers.
· Protect containers against physical damage and check regularly for leaks.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.



X X + X X +


+: May be stored together
O: May be stored together with specific preventions
X: Must not be stored together




SourceMaterialPeak ppmPeak mg/m³
Australia Exposure Standardshydrogen chloride (Hydrogen chloride)57.5
The following materials had no OELs on our records
• water: CAS:7732-18-5



Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
hydrochloric acid 2 50
hydrogen chloride 3 50
Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
hydrochloric acid 2 50
hydrogen chloride 3 50



■ for hydrogen chloride:
Odour Threshold Value: 0.262 ppm (detection), 10.06 ppm (recognition)
NOTE: Detector tubes for hydrochloric acid, measuring in excess of 1 ppm, are available commercially.
Hydrogen chloride is a strong irritant to the eyes, mucous membranes and skin. Chronic exposure produces a corrosive action on the teeth. Reports of respiratory
irritation following short- term exposure at 5 ppm have lead to the recommended TLV- C. There is no indication that skin contact with hydrogen chloride elicits
systemic poisoning and a skin designation has not been applied.
Exposure of humans to hydrogen chloride at 50 to 100 ppm for 1 hour is reported to be barely tolerable; 35 ppm caused irritation of the throat on short exposure and
10 ppm was the maximal concentration for prolonged exposure. It has been stated that hydrogen chloride at concentrations of 5 ppm is immediately irritating.
Odour Safety Factor(OSF)
■ No exposure limits set by NOHSC or ACGIH.




· Safety glasses with unperforated side shields may be used where continuous eye protection is desirable, as in laboratories; spectacles are not sufficient where
complete eye protection is needed such as when handling bulk- quantities, where there is a danger of splashing, or if the material may be under pressure
· Chemical goggles.whenever there is a danger of the material coming in contact with the eyes; goggles must be properly fitted
· Full face shield (20 cm, 8 in minimum) may be required for supplementary but never for primary protection of eyes; these afford face protection.
· Alternatively a gas mask may replace splash goggles and face shields.
· Contact lenses may pose a special hazard; soft contact lenses may absorb and concentrate irritants. A written policy document, describing the wearing of lens or
restrictions on use, should be created for each workplace or task. This should include a review of lens absorption and adsorption for the class of chemicals in use
and an account of injury experience. Medical and first- aid personnel should be trained in their removal and suitable equipment should be readily available. In the
event of chemical exposure, begin eye irrigation immediately and remove contact lens as soon as practicable. Lens should be removed at the first signs of eye redness
or irritation - lens should be removed in a clean environment only after workers have washed hands thoroughly. [CDC NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 59], [AS/NZS
1336 or national equivalent].


· Elbow length PVC gloves.
· When handling corrosive liquids, wear trousers or overalls outside of boots, to avoid spills entering boots.
Suitability and durability of glove type is dependent on usage. Important factors in the selection of gloves include:
· frequency and duration of contact,
· chemical resistance of glove material,
· glove thickness and
· dexterity
Select gloves tested to a relevant standard (e.g. Europe EN 374, US F739, AS/NZS 2161.1 or national equivalent).
· When prolonged or frequently repeated contact may occur, a glove with a protection class of 5 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 240 minutes according to EN
374, AS/NZS 2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· When only brief contact is expected, a glove with a protection class of 3 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 60 minutes according to EN 374, AS/NZS
2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· Contaminated gloves should be replaced.
Gloves must only be worn on clean hands. After using gloves, hands should be washed and dried thoroughly. Application of a non- perfumed moisturiser is recommended.


· Overalls.
· PVC Apron.
· PVC protective suit may be required if exposure severe.
· Eyewash unit.
· Ensure there is ready access to a safety shower.


■ Glove selection is based on a modified presentation of the:
" Forsberg Clothing Performance Index" .
The effect(s) of the following substance(s) are taken into account in the
computer- generated selection: hydrochloric acid
■ Protective Material CPI *.
____________________________________________ ■ * CPI - Chemwatch Performance Index A: Best Selection B: Satisfactory; may degrade after 4 hours continuous immersion C: Poor to Dangerous Choice for other than short term immersion NOTE: As a series of factors will influence the actual performance of the glove, a final selection must be based on detailed observation. - * Where the glove is to be used on a short term, casual or infrequent basis, factors such as " feel" or convenience (e.g. disposability), may dictate a choice of gloves which might otherwise be unsuitable following long- term or frequent use. A qualified practitioner should be consulted.


•Type B- P Filter of sufficient capacity. (AS/NZS 1716 & 1715, EN 143:2000 & 149:2001, ANSI Z88 or national equivalent)
■ Selection of the Class and Type of respirator will depend upon the level of breathing zone contaminant and the chemical nature of the contaminant. Protection
Factors (defined as the ratio of contaminant outside and inside the mask) may also be important.
Required minimum protection factor Maximum gas/vapour concentration present in air p.p.m. (by volume) Half-face Respirator Full-Face Respirator
up to 10 1000 b-AUS / Class1 p -
up to 50 1000 - b-AUS / Class 1 p
up to 50 5000 Airline * -
up to 100 5000 - b-2 p
up to 100 10000 - b-3 p
100+ Airline**
* - Continuous Flow ** - Continuous- flow or positive pressure demand A(All classes) = Organic vapours, B AUS or B1 = Acid gasses, B2 = Acid gas or hydrogen cyanide(HCN), B3 = Acid gas or hydrogen cyanide(HCN), E = Sulfur dioxide(SO2), G = Agricultural chemicals, K = Ammonia(NH3), Hg = Mercury, NO = Oxides of nitrogen, MB = Methyl bromide, AX = Low boiling point organic compounds(below 65 degC). The local concentration of material, quantity and conditions of use determine the type of personal protective equipment required. For further information consult site specific CHEMWATCH data (if available), or your Occupational Health and Safety Advisor.


■ Engineering controls are used to remove a hazard or place a barrier between the worker and the hazard. Well- designed engineering controls can be highly effective
in protecting workers and will typically be independent of worker interactions to provide this high level of protection.
The basic types of engineering controls are:
Process controls which involve changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk.
Enclosure and/or isolation of emission source which keeps a selected hazard " physically" away from the worker and ventilation that strategically " adds" and "
removes" air in the work environment. Ventilation can remove or dilute an air contaminant if designed properly. The design of a ventilation system must match the
particular process and chemical or contaminant in use.
Employers may need to use multiple types of controls to prevent employee overexposure.
Local exhaust ventilation usually required. If risk of overexposure exists, wear approved respirator. Correct fit is essential to obtain adequate protection.
Supplied- air type respirator may be required in special circumstances. Correct fit is essential to ensure adequate protection.
An approved self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) may be required in some situations.
Provide adequate ventilation in warehouse or closed storage area. Air contaminants generated in the workplace possess varying " escape" velocities which, in turn,
determine the " capture velocities" of fresh circulating air required to effectively remove the contaminant.
Type of Contaminant: Air Speed:
solvent, vapours, degreasing etc., evaporating from tank (in still air). 0.25-0.5 m/s (50-100 f/min.)
aerosols, fumes from pouring operations, intermittent container filling, low speed conveyer transfers, welding, spray drift, plating acid fumes, pickling (released at low velocity into zone of active generation) 0.5-1 m/s (100-200 f/min.)
direct spray, spray painting in shallow booths, drum filling, conveyer loading, crusher dusts, gas discharge (active generation into zone of rapid air motion) 1-2.5 m/s (200-500 f/min.)
grinding, abrasive blasting, tumbling, high speed wheel generated dusts (released at high initial velocity into zone of very high rapid air motion). 2.5-10 m/s (500-2000 f/min.)
Within each range the appropriate value depends on:
Lower end of the range Upper end of the range
1: Room air currents minimal or favourable to capture 1: Disturbing room air currents
2: Contaminants of low toxicity or of nuisance value only. 2: Contaminants of high toxicity
3: Intermittent, low production. 3: High production, heavy use
4: Large hood or large air mass in motion 4: Small hood-local control only
Simple theory shows that air velocity falls rapidly with distance away from the opening of a simple extraction pipe. Velocity generally decreases with the square of distance from the extraction point (in simple cases). Therefore the air speed at the extraction point should be adjusted, accordingly, after reference to distance from the contaminating source. The air velocity at the extraction fan, for example, should be a minimum of 1- 2 m/s (200- 400 f/min) for extraction of solvents generated in a tank 2 meters distant from the extraction point. Other mechanical considerations, producing performance deficits within the extraction apparatus, make it essential that theoretical air velocities are multiplied by factors of 10 or more when extraction systems are installed or used.



Clear to light yellow (orange tint for inhibited grades) fuming corrosive liquid with sharp, suffocating odour.
CARE: mixes with water but generates heat, may cause dangerous boiling. Concentrate and solutions are acidic and strongly corrosive. Material is a solution of
corrosive hydrogen chloride gas in water. Commercial grades contain 28- 37% hydrogen chloride HCl and at room temperature slowly gives off significant levels of
acidic HCl gas. Odour becomes disagreeable at 5- 10 ppm.


Mixes with water.
Toxic or noxious vapours/gas.


StateLiquidMolecular WeightNot applicable.
Melting Range (ºC)> -74ViscosityNot Available
Boiling Range (ºC)> 50Solubility in water (g/L)Miscible
Flash Point (ºC)Not ApplicablepH (1% solution)1.2
Decomposition Temp (ºC)Not AvailablepH (as supplied)0.9
Autoignition Temp (ºC)Not available.Vapour Pressure (kPa)< 25 @ 25 C
Upper Explosive Limit (%)Not applicable.Specific Gravity (water=1)1.14-1.19
Lower Explosive Limit (%)Not applicable.Relative Vapour Density (air=1)1.3
Volatile Component (%vol)approx. 100Evaporation RateSlow


StateLiquidMolecular WeightNot applicable.
Melting Range (ºC)> -74ViscosityNot Available
Boiling Range (ºC)> 50Solubility in water (g/L)Miscible
Flash Point (ºC)Not ApplicablepH (1% solution)1.2
Decomposition Temp (ºC)Not AvailablepH (as supplied)0.9
Autoignition Temp (ºC)Not available.Vapour Pressure (kPa)< 25 @ 25 C
Upper Explosive Limit (%)Not applicable.Specific Gravity (water=1)1.14-1.19
Lower Explosive Limit (%)Not applicable.Relative Vapour Density (air=1)1.3
Volatile Component (%vol)approx. 100Evaporation RateSlow



· Contact with alkaline material liberates heat.

For incompatible materials - refer to Section 7 - Handling and Storage.





■ Accidental ingestion of the material may be harmful; animal experiments indicate that ingestion of less than 150 gram may be fatal or may produce serious damage to
the health of the individual.
Ingestion of acidic corrosives may produce burns around and in the mouth, the throat and oesophagus. Immediate pain and difficulties in swallowing and speaking may
also be evident. Swelling of the epiglottis may make it difficult to breathe which may result in suffocation. More severe exposure may result in vomiting blood and
thick mucus, shock, abnormally low blood pressure, fluctuating pulse, shallow respiration and clammy skin, inflammation of stomach wall, and rupture of oesophageal
tissue. Untreated shock may eventually result in kidney failure. Severe cases may result in perforation of the stomach and abdominal cavity with consequent
infection, rigidity and fever. There may be severe narrowing of the oesophageal or pyloric sphincters; this may occur immediately or after a delay of weeks to years.
There may be coma and convulsions, followed by death due to infection of the abdominal cavity, kidneys or lungs.
Not normally a hazard due to physical form of product.
Considered an unlikely route of entry in commercial/industrial environments.


■ If applied to the eyes, this material causes severe eye damage.
Direct eye contact with acid corrosives may produce pain, tears, sensitivity to light and burns. Mild burns of the epithelia generally recover rapidly and
completely. Severe burns produce long- lasting and possibly irreversible damage. The appearance of the burn may not be apparent for several weeks after the initial
contact. The cornea may ultimately become deeply opaque resulting in blindness.


■ Skin contact with acidic corrosives may result in pain and burns; these may be deep with distinct edges and may heal slowly with the formation of scar tissue.
Skin contact with the material may damage the health of the individual; systemic effects may result following absorption.
Open cuts, abraded or irritated skin should not be exposed to this material.
Entry into the blood- stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use
of the material and ensure that any external damage is suitably protected.


■ The material can cause respiratory irritation in some persons. The body' s response to such irritation can cause further lung damage.
Corrosive acids can cause irritation of the respiratory tract, with coughing, choking and mucous membrane damage. There may be dizziness, headache, nausea and
weakness. Swelling of the lungs can occur, either immediately or after a delay; symptoms of this include chest tightness, shortness of breath, frothy phlegm and
cyanosis. Lack of oxygen can cause death hours after onset.
Inhalation of quantities of liquid mist may be extremely hazardous, even lethal due to spasm, extreme irritation of larynx and bronchi, chemical pneumonitis and
pulmonary oedema.
Hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapour or fumes present a hazard from a single acute exposure. Exposures of 1300 to 2000 ppm have been lethal to humans in a few minutes.
Inhalation of HCl may cause choking, coughing, burning sensation and may cause ulceration of the nose, throat and larynx. Fluid on the lungs followed by generalised
lung damage may follow.
Breathing of HCl vapour may aggravate asthma and inflammatory or fibrotic pulmonary disease.
High concentrations cause necrosis of the tracheal and bronchial epithelium, pulmonary oedema, atelectasis and emphysema and damage to the pulmonary blood vessels
and liver.
Inhalation of the vapour is hazardous and may even be fatal.
Inhalation of aerosols (mists, fumes), generated by the material during the course of normal handling, may produce toxic effects; these may be fatal.
Inhalation of toxic gases may cause:
·  Central Nervous System effects including depression, headache, confusion, dizziness, stupor, coma and seizures;
·  respiratory: acute lung swellings, shortness of breath, wheezing, rapid breathing, other symptoms and respiratory arrest;
·  heart: collapse, irregular heartbeats and cardiac arrest;
·  gastrointestinal: irritation, ulcers, nausea and vomiting (may be bloody), and abdominal pain.


■ Repeated or prolonged exposure to acids may result in the erosion of teeth, swelling and/or ulceration of mouth lining. Irritation of airways to lung, with cough,
and inflammation of lung tissue often occurs. Chronic exposure may inflame the skin or conjunctiva.
Long- term exposure to respiratory irritants may result in disease of the airways involving difficult breathing and related systemic problems.
There has been some concern that this material can cause cancer or mutations but there is not enough data to make an assessment.
Substance accumulation, in the human body, may occur and may cause some concern following repeated or long- term occupational exposure.
Chronic minor exposure to hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapour or fume may cause discolouration or erosion of the teeth, bleeding of the nose and gums; and ulceration of
the nasal mucous membranes.
Repeated exposures of animals to concentrations of about 34 ppm HCl produced no immediate toxic effects.
Workers exposed to hydrochloric acid suffered from gastritis and a number of cases of chronic bronchitis have also been reported.
Repeated or prolonged exposure to dilute solutions of HCl may cause dermatitis.


■ unless otherwise specified data extracted from RTECS - Register of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
■ No significant acute toxicological data identified in literature search.
■ The material may be irritating to the eye, with prolonged contact causing inflammation. Repeated or prolonged exposure to irritants may produce conjunctivitis.
■ Asthma- like symptoms may continue for months or even years after exposure to the material ceases. This may be due to a non- allergenic condition known as reactive
airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) which can occur following exposure to high levels of highly irritating compound. Key criteria for the diagnosis of RADS include
the absence of preceding respiratory disease, in a non- atopic individual, with abrupt onset of persistent asthma- like symptoms within minutes to hours of a
documented exposure to the irritant. A reversible airflow pattern, on spirometry, with the presence of moderate to severe bronchial hyperreactivity on methacholine
challenge testing and the lack of minimal lymphocytic inflammation, without eosinophilia, have also been included in the criteria for diagnosis of RADS. RADS (or
asthma) following an irritating inhalation is an infrequent disorder with rates related to the concentration of and duration of exposure to the irritating substance.
Industrial bronchitis, on the other hand, is a disorder that occurs as result of exposure due to high concentrations of irritating substance (often particulate in
nature) and is completely reversible after exposure ceases. The disorder is characterised by dyspnea, cough and mucus production.
Unreported (man) LDLo: 81 mg/kg Eye (rabbit): 5mg/30s - Mild
Inhalation (human) LCLo: 1300 ppm/30 min
Inhalation (human) LCLo: 3000 ppm/5 min
Inhalation (rat) LC50: 3124 ppm/1h
Oral (rat) LD50: 900 mg/kg
■ The substance is classified by IARC as Group 3: NOT classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. Evidence of carcinogenicity may be inadequate or limited in animal testing. HYDROGEN CHLORIDE:
Inhalation (human) LCLo: 1300 ppm/30m Eye (rabbit): 5 mg/30s - Mild
Inhalation (human) LCLo: 3000 ppm/5m
Inhalation (rat) LC50: 3124 ppm/60m
4701 ppm/30m



Hydrochloric acidInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC MonographsGroup3
Acid mists, strong inorganicInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC MonographsGroup1



■ Although inorganic chloride ions are not normally considered toxic they can exist in effluents at acutely toxic levels (chloride >3000 mg/l). The resulting salinity can exceed the tolerances of most freshwater organisms. Inorganic chlorine eventually finds its way into the aqueous compartment and as such is bioavailable. Incidental exposure to inorganic chloride may occur in occupational settings where chemicals management policies are improperly applied. The toxicity of chloride salts depends on the counter- ion (cation) present; that of chloride itself is unknown. Chloride toxicity has not been observed in humans except in the special case of impaired sodium chloride metabolism, e.g. in congestive heart failure. Healthy individuals can tolerate the intake of large quantities of chloride provided that there is a concomitant intake of fresh water. Although excessive intake of drinking- water containing sodium chloride at concentrations above 2.5 g/litre has been reported to produce hypertension, this effect is believed to be related to the sodium ion concentration. Chloride concentrations in excess of about 250 mg/litre can give rise to detectable taste in water, but the threshold depends upon the associated cations. Consumers can, however, become accustomed to concentrations in excess of 250 mg/litre. No health- based guideline value is proposed for chloride in drinking- water. In humans, 88% of chloride is extracellular and contributes to the osmotic activity of body fluids. The electrolyte balance in the body is maintained by adjusting total dietary intake and by excretion via the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. Chloride is almost completely absorbed in normal individuals, mostly from the proximal half of the small intestine. Normal fluid loss amounts to about 1.5- 2 liters/day, together with about 4 g of chloride per day. Most (90 - 95%) is excreted in the urine, with minor amounts in faeces (4- 8%) and sweat (2%). Chloride increases the electrical conductivity of water and thus increases its corrosivity. In metal pipes, chloride reacts with metal ions to form soluble salts thus increasing levels of metals in drinking- water. In lead pipes, a protective oxide layer is built up, but chloride enhances galvanic corrosion. It can also increase the rate of pitting corrosion of metal pipes. DO NOT discharge into sewer or waterways. WATER:
Ecotoxicity Fish LC100 (24 h): trout 10 mg/l TLm (96 h): mosquito fish 282 ppm (fresh water) LC50: goldfish 178 mg/l Shrimp LC50 (48 h): 100 - 330 ppm (salt water) Starfish LC50 (48 h): 100 - 330 mg/l Cockle LC50 (48 h): 330 - 1000 mg/l [Hach] Hydrogen chloride in water dissociates almost completely, releasing hydrogen and chloride ions; the hydrogen ions are captured by water to produce hydronium ions. Hydrochloric acid infiltrates soil, the rate dependent on moisture content. During soil transport, hydrochloric acid dissolves soil components. Drinking water standard: chloride: 400 mg/l (UK max.) 250 mg/l (WHO guideline)


IngredientPersistence: Water/SoilPersistence: AirBioaccumulationMobility
hydrogen chlorideLOWNo Data AvailableLOWHIGH



Name /     EHS  TRN  A1a  A1b  A1   A2   B1   B2   C1   C2   C3   D1   D2   D3   E1   E2   E3
Cas No /
_________  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___
Aluminium  336  110  Ino       2    Ino  3    1    1    (0)  3    (3C  3              D    3
                     rg             rg                            )
 01- 0 /

EHS=EHS Number (EHS=GESAMP Working Group on the Evaluation of the Hazards of Harmful Substances Carried by Ships) NRT=Net Register Tonnage, A1a=Bioaccumulation log Pow, A1b=Bioaccumulation BCF, A1=Bioaccumulation, A2=Biodegradation, B1=Acuteaquatic toxicity LC/ECIC50 (mg/l), B2=Chronic aquatic toxicity NOEC (mg/l), C1=Acute mammalian oral toxicity LD50 (mg/kg), C2=Acutemammalian dermal toxicity LD50 (mg/kg), C3=Acute mammalian inhalation toxicity LC50 (mg/kg), D1=Skin irritation & corrosion, D2=Eye irritation& corrosion, D3=Long-term health effects, E1=Tainting, E2=Physical effects on wildlife & benthic habitats, E3=Interference with coastal amenities,
For column A2: R=Readily biodegradable, NR=Not readily biodegradable.
For column D3: C=Carcinogen, M=Mutagenic, R=Reprotoxic, S=Sensitising, A=Aspiration hazard, T=Target organ systemic toxicity, L=Lunginjury, N=Neurotoxic, I=Immunotoxic.
For column E1: NT=Not tainting (tested), T=Tainting test positive.
For column E2: Fp=Persistent floater, F=Floater, S=Sinking substances.
The numerical scales start from 0 (no hazard), while higher numbers reflect increasing hazard.
(GESAMP/EHS Composite List of Hazard Profiles - Hazard evaluation of substances transported by ships)


· Containers may still present a chemical hazard/ danger when empty.
· Return to supplier for reuse/ recycling if possible.
· If container can not be cleaned sufficiently well to ensure that residuals do not remain or if the container cannot be used to store the same product, then puncture containers, to prevent re-use, and bury at an authorised landfill.
· Where possible retain label warnings and MSDS and observe all notices pertaining to the product.
Legislation addressing waste disposal requirements may differ by country, state and/ or territory. Each user must refer to laws operating in their area. In some areas, certain wastes must be tracked.
A Hierarchy of Controls seems to be common - the user should investigate:
· Reduction
· Reuse
· Recycling
· Disposal (if all else fails)
This material may be recycled if unused, or if it has not been contaminated so as to make it unsuitable for its intended use. If it has been contaminated, it may be possible to reclaim the product by filtration, distillation or some other means. Shelf life considerations should also be applied in making decisions of this type. Note that properties of a material may change in use, and recycling or reuse may not always be appropriate.
· DO NOT allow wash water from cleaning or process equipment to enter drains.
· It may be necessary to collect all wash water for treatment before disposal.
· In all cases disposal to sewer may be subject to local laws and regulations and these should be considered first.
· Where in doubt contact the responsible authority.
· Recycle wherever possible.
· Consult manufacturer for recycling options or consult local or regional waste management authority for disposal if no suitable treatment or disposal facility can be identified.
· Treat and neutralise at an approved treatment plant. Treatment should involve: Neutralisation with soda-ash or soda-lime followed by: burial in a land-fill specifically licenced to accept chemical and / or pharmaceutical wastes or Incineration in a licenced apparatus (after admixture with suitable combustible material).
· Decontaminate empty containers with 5% aqueous sodium hydroxide or soda ash, followed by water. Observe all label safeguards until containers are cleaned and destroyed.


Labels Required: CORROSIVE


2R (ADG7)


Class or Division: 8 Subsidiary Risk: None
UN No.: 1789 Packing Group: II
Special Provision: None Limited Quantity: 1 L
Portable Tanks & Bulk Containers - Instruction: T8 Portable Tanks & Bulk Containers - Special Provision: TP2
Packagings & IBCs - Packing Instruction: None Packagings & IBCs - Special Packing Provision: P001, IBC02
Name and Description: HYDROCHLORIC ACID

Land Transport UNDG:

Class or division: 8 Subsidiary risk: None
UN No.: 1789 UN packing group: II

Air Transport IATA:

UN/ID Number: 1789 Packing Group: II
Special provisions: A3

Maritime Transport IMDG:

Forbidden for transport


GESAMP hazard profiles for this material can be found in section 12 of the MSDS.




hydrogen chloride (CAS: 7647-01-0) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia - Queensland Hazardous Materials and Prescribed Quantities for Major Hazard Facilities","Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 9 Precursor substances - Part 2","Australia Exposure Standards","Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)","Australia Illicit Drug Reagents/Essential Chemicals - Category III","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","Australia National Pollutant Inventory","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix E (Part 2)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix F (Part 3)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 5","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 6","CODEX General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) - Additives Permitted for Use in Food in General, Unless Otherwise Specified, in Accordance with GMP","GESAMP/EHS Composite List - GESAMP Hazard Profiles","IMO IBC Code Chapter 17: Summary of minimum requirements","IMO MARPOL 73/78 (Annex II) - List of Noxious Liquid Substances Carried in Bulk","International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC Monographs","International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) - High Production Volume List","International Maritime Dangerous Goods Requirements (IMDG Code) - Goods Forbidden for Transport","United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances - Table II","United Nations List of Precursors and Chemicals Frequently used in the Illicit Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Under International Control (Red List) - Table II"

Regulations for ingredients

water (CAS: 7732-18-5) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","IMO IBC Code Chapter 18: List of products to which the Code does not apply","International Fragrance Association (IFRA) Survey: Transparency List"



Paul Milward-Bason
17 Grandview Parade
Moolap 3221
Victoria Australia



The following table displays the version number of and date on which each section was last changed.

Section Name        Version  Date             Section Name        Version  Date             Section Name        Version  Date
First Aid           5        27- May- 2009    Personal            4        29- Nov- 2007    Acute Health        5        27- May- 2009
(inhaled)                                     Protection                                    (skin)
Fire Fighter        4        29- Nov- 2007    Personal            4        29- Nov- 2007    Acute Health        5        27- May- 2009
(fire/explosion                               Protection (other)                            (swallowed)
Spills (minor)      5        27- May- 2009    Appearance          6        13- Jul- 2009    Chronic Health      4        29- Nov- 2007
Handling Procedure  5        27- May- 2009    Physical            4        29- Nov- 2007    Toxicity and        4        29- Nov- 2007
                                              Properties                                    Irritation (Other)
Storage (storage    5        27- May- 2009    Acute Health (eye)  4        29- Nov- 2007    Environmental       5        27- May- 2009
Storage (suitable   4        29- Nov- 2007    Acute Health        4        29- Nov- 2007    Disposal            4        29- Nov- 2007
container)                                    (inhaled)
Exposure Standard   6        13- Jul- 2009


■ Classification of the preparation and its individual components has drawn on official and authoritative sources as well as independent review by the Chemwatch Classification committee using available literature references.
A list of reference resources used to assist the committee may be found at:


■ The (M)SDS is a Hazard Communication tool and should be used to assist in the Risk Assessment. Many factors determine whether the reported Hazards are Risks in the workplace or other settings. Risks may be determined by reference to Exposures Scenarios. Scale of use, frequency of use and current or available engineering controls must be considered.



This document is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, review or
criticism, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written
permission from CHEMWATCH. TEL (+61 3) 9572 4700.


Issue Date: 17-Jun-2011

Print Date: 17-Feb-2012



This is the end of the MSDS.