CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY

Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet

Issue Date: 24-Apr-2009

NC317TCP

CHEMWATCH 1748-1

Version No:7

Section 1 - CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION

PRODUCT NAME

CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY

PROPER SHIPPING NAME

CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY or CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE MIXTURE, DRY

PRODUCT USE

■ WARNING: To avoid violent reaction, ALWAYS add material to water and NEVER water to material.
· Material is mixed and used in accordance with manufacturers directions.
Used as an algicide, fungicide, bactericide, disinfectant, steriliser, sanitiser and deodorant; an oxidising agent; and a bleaching agent. It is also used in the refining of sugar.
Intermediate

SUPPLIER

Company: Tennant Trading Pty Ltd
Address:
Level 2, 40 Yeo Street
Neutral Bay
NSW, 2089
Australia
Telephone: +61 2 9908 9100
Emergency Tel: 1800 039 008 (24 hours)
Emergency Tel: +61 3 9573 3112
Fax: +61 2 9908 9111

Section 2 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

STATEMENT OF HAZARDOUS NATURE

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE. DANGEROUS GOODS. According to NOHSC Criteria, and ADG Code.

CHEMWATCH HAZARD RATINGS

Flammability 0
Toxicity 2
Body Contact 3
Reactivity 2
Chronic 2
SCALE: Min/Nil=0 Low=1 Moderate=2 High=3 Extreme=4

 

RISK SAFETY
■ Contact with combustible material may cause fire. • Keep locked up.
■ Harmful if swallowed. • Keep away from combustible material.
■ Contact with acids liberates toxic gas. • Do not breathe dust.
■ Causes burns. • Avoid contact with skin.
■ Risk of serious damage to eyes. • Avoid contact with eyes.
■ Very toxic to aquatic organisms. • Wear suitable protective clothing.
■ Cumulative effects may result following exposure*. • Wear suitable gloves.
■ Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect*. • Wear eye/ face protection.
■ Possible skin sensitiser*. • Do not empty into drains.
* (limited evidence). • To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use water.
• This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way.
• Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
• In case of contact with eyes, rinse with plenty of water and contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre.
• In case of accident or if you feel unwell, IMMEDIATELY contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre (show label if possible).
• If swallowed, IMMEDIATELY contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre (show this container or label).
• Use appropriate container to avoid environment contamination.
• Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/ safety data sheets.
• This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.

 

Section 3 - COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

NAME CAS RN %
calcium hypochlorite, dry 7778-54-3 94 app.
may contain
calcium hydroxide hypochlorite 12394-14-8 (< 6
calcium chloride 10043-52-4 (
calcium hydroxide 1305-62-0 (
(Available chlorine >39%)
Decomposes when wet and gives off toxic
chlorine 7782-50-5

Section 4 - FIRST AID MEASURES

SWALLOWED

· For advice, contact a Poisons Information Centre or a doctor at once.
· Urgent hospital treatment is likely to be needed.
· If swallowed do NOT induce vomiting.
· If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain open airway and prevent aspiration.
· Observe the patient carefully.
· Never give liquid to a person showing signs of being sleepy or with reduced awareness; i.e. becoming unconscious.
· Give water to rinse out mouth, then provide liquid slowly and as much as casualty can comfortably drink.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.

EYE

■ If this product comes in contact with the eyes:
· Immediately hold eyelids apart and flush the eye continuously with running water.
· Ensure complete irrigation of the eye by keeping eyelids apart and away from eye and moving the eyelids by occasionally lifting the upper and lower lids.
· Continue flushing until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre or a doctor, or for at least 15 minutes.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.
· Removal of contact lenses after an eye injury should only be undertaken by skilled personnel.

SKIN

■ If skin or hair contact occurs:
· Immediately flush body and clothes with large amounts of water, using safety shower if available.
· Quickly remove all contaminated clothing, including footwear.
· Wash skin and hair with running water. Continue flushing with water until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor.

INHALED

· If fumes or combustion products are inhaled remove from contaminated area.
· Lay patient down. Keep warm and rested.
· Prostheses such as false teeth, which may block airway, should be removed, where possible, prior to initiating first aid procedures.
· Apply artificial respiration if not breathing, preferably with a demand valve resuscitator, bag-valve mask device, or pocket mask as trained. Perform CPR if necessary.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor.
· Inhalation of vapours or aerosols (mists, fumes) may cause lung oedema.
· Corrosive substances may cause lung damage (e.g. lung oedema, fluid in the lungs).
· As this reaction may be delayed up to 24 hours after exposure, affected individuals need complete rest (preferably in semi-recumbent posture) and must be kept under medical observation even if no symptoms are (yet) manifested.
· Before any such manifestation, the administration of a spray containing a dexamethasone derivative or beclomethasone derivative may be considered.
This must definitely be left to a doctor or person authorised by him/her.
(ICSC13719).

NOTES TO PHYSICIAN

■ Excellent warning properties force rapid escape of personnel from chlorine vapour thus most inhalations are mild to moderate. If escape is not possible, exposure
to high concentrations for a very short time can result in dyspnea, haemophysis and cyanosis with later complications being tracheobroncho- pneumonitis and pulmonary
oedema. Oxygen, intermittent positive pressure breathing apparatus and aerosolysed bronchodilators are of therapeutic value where chlorine inhalation has been light
to moderate. Severe inhalation should result in hospitalisation and treatment for a respiratory emergency.
Any chlorine inhalation in an individual with compromised pulmonary function (COPD) should be regarded as a severe inhalation and a respiratory emergency. [CCINFO,
Dow 1988]
Effects from exposure to chlorine gas include pulmonary oedema which may be delayed. Observation in hospital for 48 hours is recommended
Diagnosed asthmatics and those people suffering from certain types of chronic bronchitis should receive medical approval before being employed in occupations
involving chlorine exposure.
If burn is present, treat as any thermal burn, after decontamination.
For acute or repeated exposures to hypochlorite solutions:
· Release of small amounts of hypochlorous acid and acid gases from the stomach following ingestion, is usually too low to cause damage but may be irritating to
mucous membranes. Buffering with antacid may be helpful if discomfort is evident.
· Evaluate as potential caustic exposure.
· Decontaminate skin and eyes with copious saline irrigation. Check exposed eyes for corneal abrasions with fluorescein staining.
· Emesis or lavage and catharsis may be indicated for mild caustic exposure.
· Chlorine exposures require evaluation of acid/base and respiratory status.
· Inhalation of vapours or mists may result in pulmonary oedema.
ELLENHORN and BARCELOUX: Medical Toxicology.
Depending on the degree of exposure, periodic medical examination is indicated. The symptoms of lung oedema often do not manifest until a few hours have passed and
they are aggravated by physical effort. Rest and medical observation is therefore essential. Immediate administration of an appropriate spray, by a doctor or a
person authorised by him/her should be considered.
(ICSC24419/24421.

Section 5 - FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

EXTINGUISHING MEDIA

■ FOR SMALL FIRE:
· USE FLOODING QUANTITIES OF WATER.
· DO NOT use dry chemical, CO2, foam or halogenated- type extinguishers.
FOR LARGE FIRE
· Flood fire area with water from a protected position.

FIRE FIGHTING

· Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
· May be violently or explosively reactive.
· Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus.
· Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water courses.
· Fight fire from a safe distance, with adequate cover.
· Extinguishers should be used only by trained personnel.
· Use water delivered as a fine spray to control fire and cool adjacent area.
· DO NOT approach containers suspected to be hot.
· Cool fire exposed containers with water spray from a protected location.
· If safe to do so, remove containers from path of fire.
· If fire gets out of control withdraw personnel and warn against entry.
· Equipment should be thoroughly decontaminated after use.

FIRE/EXPLOSION HAZARD

· Will not burn but increases intensity of fire.
· Heating may cause expansion or decomposition leading to violent rupture of containers.
· Heat affected containers remain hazardous.
· Contact with combustibles such as wood, paper, oil or finely divided metal may produce spontaneous combustion or violent decomposition.
· May emit irritating, poisonous or corrosive fumes.
Decomposition may produce toxic fumes of: hydrogen chloride.

FIRE INCOMPATIBILITY

· Avoid storage with reducing agents.
· Avoid any contamination of this material as it is very reactive and any contamination is potentially hazardous.

HAZCHEM

1W

Personal Protective Equipment

Breathing apparatus.
Gas tight chemical resistant suit.
Limit exposure duration to 1 BA set 30 mins.

Section 6 - ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

MINOR SPILLS

· Clean up all spills immediately.
· No smoking, naked lights, ignition sources.
· Avoid all contact with any organic matter including fuel, solvents, sawdust, paper or cloth and other
incompatible materials, as ignition may result.
· Avoid breathing dust or vapours and all contact with skin and eyes.
· Control personal contact by using protective equipment.
· Contain and absorb spill with dry sand, earth, inert material or vermiculite.
· DO NOT use sawdust as fire may result.
· Scoop up solid residues and seal in labelled drums for disposal.
· Neutralise/decontaminate area.

MAJOR SPILLS

· Clear area of personnel and move upwind.
· Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
· May be violently or explosively reactive.
· Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus.
· Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course.
· Consider evacuation (or protect in place).
· No smoking, flames or ignition sources.
· Increase ventilation.
· Contain spill with sand, earth or other clean, inert materials.
· NEVER use organic absorbents such as sawdust, paper, cloth; as fire may result.
· Avoid any contamination by organic matter.
· Use spark- free and explosion- proof equipment.
· Collect any recoverable product into labelled containers for possible recycling.
· DO NOT mix fresh with recovered material.
·  Collect residues and seal in labelled drums for disposal.
· Wash area and prevent runoff into drains.
· Decontaminate equipment and launder all protective clothing before storage and re- use.
· If contamination of drains or waterways occurs advise emergency services.
· DO NOT touch the spill material.
Cover remainder with a weak reducing agent to destroy available chlorine and mix with water.
Transfer sludge to suitable container and neutralise with soda ash. Wash spill area with detergent, reducer
and water.

PROTECTIVE ACTIONS FOR SPILL

From IERG (Canada/Australia)
Isolation Distance 25 metres
Downwind Protection Distance 100 metres
IERG Number 31

 

FOOTNOTES
1 PROTECTIVE ACTION ZONE is defined as the area in which people are at risk of harmful exposure. This zone assumes that random changes in wind direction confines the
vapour plume to an area within 30 degrees on either side of the predominant wind direction, resulting in a crosswind protective action distance equal to the downwind
protective action distance.
2 PROTECTIVE ACTIONS should be initiated to the extent possible, beginning with those closest to the spill and working away from the site in the downwind direction.
Within the protective action zone a level of vapour concentration may exist resulting in nearly all unprotected persons becoming incapacitated and unable to take
protective action and/or incurring serious or irreversible health effects.
3 INITIAL ISOLATION ZONE is determined as an area, including upwind of the incident, within which a high probability of localised wind reversal may expose nearly all
persons without appropriate protection to life- threatening concentrations of the material.
4 SMALL SPILLS involve a leaking package of 200 litres (55 US gallons) or less, such as a drum (jerrican or box with inner containers). Larger packages leaking less
than 200 litres and compressed gas leaking from a small cylinder are also considered " small spills" .
LARGE SPILLS involve many small leaking packages or a leaking package of greater than 200 litres, such as a cargo tank, portable tank or a " one- tonne" compressed
gas cylinder.
5 Guide 140 is taken from the US DOT emergency response guide book.
6 IERG information is derived from CANUTEC - Transport Canada.

 

Personal Protective Equipment advice is contained in Section 8 of the MSDS.

Section 7 - HANDLING AND STORAGE

PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING

· Avoid personal contact and inhalation of dust, mist or vapours.
· Provide adequate ventilation.
· Always wear protective equipment and wash off any spillage from clothing.
· Keep material away from light, heat, flammables or combustibles.
· Keep cool, dry and away from incompatible materials.
· Avoid physical damage to containers.
· DO NOT repack or return unused portions to original containers. Withdraw only sufficient amounts for immediate use.
· Contamination can lead to decomposition leading to possible intense heat and fire.
· When handling NEVER smoke, eat or drink.
· Always wash hands with soap and water after handling.
· Use only good occupational work practice.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling directions.
WARNING: To avoid violent reaction, ALWAYS add material to water and NEVER water to material.

SUITABLE CONTAINER

■ Liquid inorganic hypochlorites shall not to be transported in unlined metal drums. Inner packagings shall be fitted with vented closures and plastics drums and carboys shall have vented closures or be performance tested to a minimum of 250 kPa. All non-vented packagings shall be filled so that the ullage is at least 10% at 21-25 deg.C. Vented packagings may be filled to an ullage not less than 5% at 21-25 deg.C, provided that this ullage does not result in leakage from, nor distortion of, the packaging.
· DO NOT repack. Use containers supplied by manufacturer only.
For low viscosity materials
· Drums and jerricans must be of the non-removable head type.
· Where a can is to be used as an inner package, the can must have a screwed enclosure.
For materials with a viscosity of at least 2680 cSt. (23 deg. C) and solids:
· Removable head packaging and
· cans with friction closures may be used.
-
Where combination packages are used, and the inner packages are of glass, there must be sufficient inert cushioning material in contact with inner and outer packages *.
-
In addition, where inner packagings are glass and contain liquids of packing group I and II there must be sufficient inert absorbent to absorb any spillage *.
-
* unless the outer packaging is a close fitting moulded plastic box and the substances are not incompatible with the plastic.

STORAGE INCOMPATIBILITY

· Contact with acids produces toxic fumes.
Chlorine:
· is a strong oxidiser
· reacts explosively with acetylene, boron, diborane, or other boron hydrides at ordinary temperatures
· forms easily ignited, sensitive explosive mixtures with gases and vapours such as anhydrous ammonia, benzene, butane, ethane, ethylene, fluorine, hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, hydrogen, hydrogen bromide, hydrogen chloride, oxygen, propane, propene in the presence of heat, hot surfaces, welding arc, sparks, strong sunlight, UV light, or a catalyst such as mercury oxide
· contact with 2-carboxymethylisothiouronium chloride or s-ethylisothiouronium hydrogen sulfate may form nitrogen trichloride. a dangerous explosive
· reacts violently with combustible materials, reducing agents, acetylene, molten aluminium (ignites on contact with the gas), alcohols, arsenic compounds, arsine, bismuth, boron, calcium compounds, carbon, diethylzinc, dimethylformamide, ether, ethyl phosphine, fluorine, germanium, hydrocarbons, hydrazine, hydrogen sulfide, hydroxylamine, iridium, lithium, lithium acetylide, magnesium, magnesium oxide, magnesium phosphide, mercury sulfide, methyl vinyl ether, metal carbides, molybdenum trioxide, potassium acetylide, sodium acetylide, sulfamic, sulfur dioxide, triethylborane and many other substances
· forms explosive mixtures with gasoline and petroleum products, such as mineral oil, , greases, phosphorus, silicones, turpentine, finely divided metals, organic compounds
· in its liquid form reacts explosively with carbon disulfide, linseed oil, propylene, rubber, wax, white phosphorus
· attacks some plastics and coatings
· may cause dangerous fires in contact with hot solid metals (especially steel - iron/ chlorine fire can cause the bursting of storage containers)
· when moist (150 ppm in water) is extremely corrosive to most metals especially in the presence of heat.
· reacts with water to give hydrogen chloride, with carbon monoxide to form phosgene, and with sulfur dioxide to give sulfuryl chloride
Chlorine storage areas shall be separated from anhydrous ammonia storage areas by a vapour path of at least 10 meters.
· Inorganic oxidising agents can react with reducing agents to generate heat and products that may be gaseous (causing pressurization of closed containers). The products may themselves be capable of further reactions (such as combustion in the air).
· Organic compounds in general have some reducing power and can in principle react with compounds in this class. Actual reactivity varies greatly with the identity of the organic compound.
· Inorganic oxidising agents can react violently with active metals, cyanides, esters, and thiocyanates.
· Inorganic reducing agents react with oxidizing agents to generate heat and products that may be flammable, combustible, or otherwise reactive. Their reactions with oxidizing agents may be violent.
· Incidents involving interaction of active oxidants and reducing agents, either by design or accident, are usually very energetic and examples of so-called redox reactions.
· Presence of rust (iron oxide) or other metal oxides catalyses decomposition of inorganic hypochlorites.
· Contact with water can cause heating and decomposition giving off chlorine and oxygen gases. Solid hypochlorites in contact with water or moisture may generate sufficient heat to ignite combustible materials. Thermal decomposition can be sustained in the absence of oxygen.
· Contact with acids produces toxic fumes of chlorine.
· Bottles of strong sodium hypochlorite solution (10-14% available chlorine) burst in storage due to failure of the cap designed to vent oxygen slowly during storage. A hot summer may have exacerbated the situation. Vent caps should be checked regularly (using full personal protection) and hypochlorites should not be stored in direct sunlight or at temperatures exceeding 18 deg. C
· Anhydrous solid hypochlorite may decompose violently on heating or if subject to friction.
· Inorganic hypochlorites reacts violently with many incompatible materials including fuels, oils, wood, paper, etc. which become readily ignitable. Avoid contact with peroxides glycerine, lubricating oil, combustibles, amines, solvents, charcoal, metal oxides and salts, copper , mercaptan, sulfur, organic sulfides, turpentine.
· Contact of hypochlorites with nitromethane, alcohols, glycerol, phenol or diethylene glycol monomethyl ether results in ignition.
· Ammonia or primary aliphatic or aromatic amines may react with hypochlorites to form N-mono- or di-chloramines which are explosively unstable (but less so than nitrogen trichloride). Contact in drains between effluents containing ammonium salts and hypochlorites and acid lead to the formation of nitrogen trichloride which decomposed explosively. Whilst cleaning a brewery tank, reaction between an acidified ammonium sulfate cleaning preparation and sodium hypochlorite, lead nitrogen chloride formation and violent explosion
· Interaction of ethyleneimine (aziridine) with hypochlorites gives an explosive N-chloro compound
· Interaction of metal hypochlorites with nitrogenous materials may lead to the formation of nitrogen trichloride with explosive decomposition.
· Metal oxides catalyse the oxygen decomposition of the hypochlorite.
· Heating with carbon under confinement can result in explosion. Explosive interaction has occurred with carbonised food residues. After an attempt to clean these using bleach, and after heating, sodium chlorate appears to have been formed with consequent violent explosion
· Removal of formic acid from industrial waste streams with sodium hypochlorite solutions produced explosion at 55 deg. C.
· Explosions following reaction with methanol are attributed to formation of methyl hypochlorite.
· When finely divided materials such as sugar, wood dust and paper are contaminated with hypochlorite solution they burn more readily when dry.
· Calcium hypochlorite with over 60% "active" chlorine ignites on contact with lubricating oils, damp sulfur, organic thiols or sulfides
· Incompatible with sanitising bowl cleaners containing bisulfites.
· Avoid any contamination of this material as it is very reactive and any contamination is potentially hazardous.
· Avoid storage with reducing agents.

PACKAGING MATERIAL INCOMPATIBILITIES

Chemical Name                   Container Type
Calcium Hypochlorite            " Acetal (Delrinr)" , Aluminum, Bronze, " Carbon Steel" , " Cast iron"
                                , " Natural rubber" , Neoprene, Nylon, Polycarbonate, Polyurethane

STORAGE REQUIREMENTS

■ In addition, Goods of Class 5.1, packing group II should be:
· stored in piles so that
· the height of the pile does not exceed 1 metre
· the maximum quantity in a pile or building does not exceed 1000 tonnes unless the area is provided with automatic fire extinguishers
· the maximum height of a pile does not exceed 3 metres where the room is provided with automatic fire extinguishers or 2 meters if not.
· the minimum distance between piles is not less than 2 metres where the room is provided with automatic fire extinguishers or 3 meters if not.
· the minimum distance to walls is not less than 1 metre.

_____________________________________________________

SAFE STORAGE WITH OTHER CLASSIFIED CHEMICALS

_____________________________________________________

+: May be stored together
O: May be stored together with specific preventions
X: Must not be stored together

 

Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION

EXPOSURE CONTROLS

SourceMaterialTWA mg/m³Peak ppmPeak mg/m³
___________________________________________
Australia Exposure Standardscalcium hypochlorite, dry (Chlorine)13
Australia Exposure Standardscalcium hydroxide (Calcium hydroxide)5
The following materials had no OELs on our records
• calcium chloride: CAS:10043-52-4

 

EMERGENCY EXPOSURE LIMITS

Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
calcium hypochlorite, dry 3 10
calcium hypochlorite, dry|1748-1 5
calcium hydroxide hypochlorite 3 10
calcium hydroxide|10064 500
chlorine 1 10
Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
calcium hypochlorite, dry 3 10
calcium hypochlorite, dry|1748-1 5
calcium hydroxide hypochlorite 3 10
calcium hydroxide|10064 500
chlorine 1 10

 

MATERIAL DATA

CALCIUM HYDROXIDE HYPOCHLORITE:
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY:
CHLORINE:
■ for chlorine:
Odour Threshold Value: 0.08 ppm (detection) - olfactory fatigue may develop
NOTE: Detector tubes for chlorine, measuring in excess of 0.2 ppm, are commercially available. Long- term measurements (8 hrs) may be conducted to detect
concentrations exceeding 0.13 ppm.
Smell is not a good indicator of severity of exposure in the range 0.5 to 2 ppm. In this range subjects found exposure unpleasant with itching and burning of the
throat reported and occasionally an urge to cough. Significant differences in the responses of males and females were also recorded with females often reporting
headache and drowsiness.
Exposure at 1 ppm chlorine for 8 hours produced significant changes in pulmonary function and increased subjective irritation. Similar 8 hour exposures at 0.5 ppm
produced no significant pulmonary function changes and less severe subjective irritation. Exposures for 2 hours at 2 ppm chlorine produced no significant changes in
pulmonary irritation.
An 8 hour exposure at 1.5 ppm produced increased mucous secretion from the nose and increased mucous in the hypopharynx. Exposure at or below the TLV- TWA and STEL
is thought to protect the worker against annoying symptoms in nose, throat and conjunctiva and declines in pulmonary function.
Odour Safety Factor(OSF)
OSF=1.6 (CHLORINE).
CALCIUM CHLORIDE:
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE HYPOCHLORITE:
■ Sensory irritants are chemicals that produce temporary and undesirable side- effects on the eyes, nose or throat. Historically occupational exposure standards for
these irritants have been based on observation of workers' responses to various airborne concentrations. Present day expectations require that nearly every
individual should be protected against even minor sensory irritation and exposure standards are established using uncertainty factors or safety factors of 5 to 10 or
more. On occasion animal no- observable- effect- levels (NOEL) are used to determine these limits where human results are unavailable. An additional approach,
typically used by the TLV committee (USA) in determining respiratory standards for this group of chemicals, has been to assign ceiling values (TLV C) to rapidly
acting irritants and to assign short- term exposure limits (TLV STELs) when the weight of evidence from irritation, bioaccumulation and other endpoints combine to
warrant such a limit. In contrast the MAK Commission (Germany) uses a five- category system based on intensive odour, local irritation, and elimination half- life.
However this system is being replaced to be consistent with the European Union (EU) Scientific Committee for Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL); this is more
closely allied to that of the USA.
OSHA (USA) concluded that exposure to sensory irritants can:
· cause inflammation
· cause increased susceptibility to other irritants and infectious agents
· lead to permanent injury or dysfunction
· permit greater absorption of hazardous substances and
· acclimate the worker to the irritant warning properties of these substances thus increasing the risk of overexposure.
CALCIUM CHLORIDE:
■ It is the goal of the ACGIH (and other Agencies) to recommend TLVs (or their equivalent) for all substances for which there is evidence of health effects at
airborne concentrations encountered in the workplace.
At this time no TLV has been established, even though this material may produce adverse health effects (as evidenced in animal experiments or clinical experience).
Airborne concentrations must be maintained as low as is practically possible and occupational exposure must be kept to a minimum.
NOTE: The ACGIH occupational exposure standard for Particles Not Otherwise Specified (P.N.O.S) does NOT apply.
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE:
■ For calcium hydroxide:
In the absence of reports of adverse effects from exposure and the recognised lesser alkalinity of the alkaline earths compared with the the alkali hydroxides the
relatively high value of TLV- TWA is recommended. This value corresponds in total alkalinity to 5 mg/m3 of sodium hydroxide or 2.5 times the TLV- TWA of sodium
hydroxide.

 

PERSONAL PROTECTION

EYE

· Chemical goggles.
· Full face shield may be required for supplementary but never for primary protection of eyes
· Contact lenses may pose a special hazard; soft contact lenses may absorb and concentrate irritants. A written policy document, describing the wearing of lens or
restrictions on use, should be created for each workplace or task. This should include a review of lens absorption and adsorption for the class of chemicals in use
and an account of injury experience. Medical and first- aid personnel should be trained in their removal and suitable equipment should be readily available. In the
event of chemical exposure, begin eye irrigation immediately and remove contact lens as soon as practicable. Lens should be removed at the first signs of eye redness
or irritation - lens should be removed in a clean environment only after workers have washed hands thoroughly. [CDC NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 59], [AS/NZS
1336 or national equivalent].

HANDS/FEET

· Wear chemical protective gloves, eg. PVC.
· Wear safety footwear or safety gumboots, eg. Rubber.
NOTE:
· The material may produce skin sensitisation in predisposed individuals. Care must be taken, when removing gloves and other protective equipment, to avoid all
possible skin contact.
· Contaminated leather items, such as shoes, belts and watch- bands should be removed and destroyed.
Suitability and durability of glove type is dependent on usage. Important factors in the selection of gloves include:
· frequency and duration of contact,
· chemical resistance of glove material,
· glove thickness and
· dexterity
Select gloves tested to a relevant standard (e.g. Europe EN 374, US F739, AS/NZS 2161.1 or national equivalent).
· When prolonged or frequently repeated contact may occur, a glove with a protection class of 5 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 240 minutes according to EN
374, AS/NZS 2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· When only brief contact is expected, a glove with a protection class of 3 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 60 minutes according to EN 374, AS/NZS
2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· Contaminated gloves should be replaced.
Gloves must only be worn on clean hands. After using gloves, hands should be washed and dried thoroughly. Application of a non- perfumed moisturiser is recommended.
· Neoprene gloves.
· DO NOT wear cotton or cotton- backed gloves.
· DO NOT wear leather gloves.
· Promptly hose all spills off leather shoes or boots or ensure that such footwear is protected with PVC over- shoes.

OTHER

· Overalls.
· PVC Apron.
· PVC protective suit may be required if exposure severe.
· Eyewash unit.
· Ensure there is ready access to a safety shower.
· Some plastic personal protective equipment (PPE) (e.g. gloves, aprons, overshoes) are not recommended as they may produce static electricity.
· For large scale or continuous use wear tight- weave non- static clothing (no metallic fasteners, cuffs or pockets), non sparking safety footwear.

RESPIRATOR

•Type B- P Filter of sufficient capacity. (AS/NZS 1716 & 1715, EN 143:2000 & 149:2001, ANSI Z88 or national equivalent)
■ Selection of the Class and Type of respirator will depend upon the level of breathing zone contaminant and the chemical nature of the contaminant. Protection
Factors (defined as the ratio of contaminant outside and inside the mask) may also be important.
Required minimum protection factor Maximum gas/vapour concentration present in air p.p.m. (by volume) Half-face Respirator Full-Face Respirator
up to 10 1000 b-AUS / Class1 p -
up to 50 1000 - b-AUS / Class 1 p
up to 50 5000 Airline * -
up to 100 5000 - b-2 p
up to 100 10000 - b-3 p
100+ Airline**
* - Continuous Flow ** - Continuous- flow or positive pressure demand A(All classes) = Organic vapours, B AUS or B1 = Acid gasses, B2 = Acid gas or hydrogen cyanide(HCN), B3 = Acid gas or hydrogen cyanide(HCN), E = Sulfur dioxide(SO2), G = Agricultural chemicals, K = Ammonia(NH3), Hg = Mercury, NO = Oxides of nitrogen, MB = Methyl bromide, AX = Low boiling point organic compounds(below 65 degC). · Respirators may be necessary when engineering and administrative controls do not adequately prevent exposures. · The decision to use respiratory protection should be based on professional judgment that takes into account toxicity information, exposure measurement data, and frequency and likelihood of the worker' s exposure - ensure users are not subject to high thermal loads which may result in heat stress or distress due to personal protective equipment (powered, positive flow, full face apparatus may be an option). · Published occupational exposure limits, where they exist, will assist in determining the adequacy of the selected respiratory . These may be government mandated or vendor recommended. · Certified respirators will be useful for protecting workers from inhalation of particulates when properly selected and fit tested as part of a complete respiratory protection program. · Use approved positive flow mask if significant quantities of dust becomes airborne. · Try to avoid creating dust conditions. The local concentration of material, quantity and conditions of use determine the type of personal protective equipment required. For further information consult site specific CHEMWATCH data (if available), or your Occupational Health and Safety Advisor.

ENGINEERING CONTROLS

■ Engineering controls are used to remove a hazard or place a barrier between the worker and the hazard. Well- designed engineering controls can be highly effective
in protecting workers and will typically be independent of worker interactions to provide this high level of protection.
The basic types of engineering controls are:
Process controls which involve changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk.
Enclosure and/or isolation of emission source which keeps a selected hazard " physically" away from the worker and ventilation that strategically " adds" and "
removes" air in the work environment. Ventilation can remove or dilute an air contaminant if designed properly. The design of a ventilation system must match the
particular process and chemical or contaminant in use.
Employers may need to use multiple types of controls to prevent employee overexposure.
· Local exhaust ventilation is required where solids are handled as powders or crystals; even when particulates are relatively large, a certain proportion will be
powdered by mutual friction.
· If in spite of local exhaust an adverse concentration of the substance in air could occur, respiratory protection should be considered.
Such protection might consist of:
(a): particle dust respirators, if necessary, combined with an absorption cartridge;
(b): filter respirators with absorption cartridge or canister of the right type;
(c): fresh- air hoods or masks.
Air contaminants generated in the workplace possess varying " escape" velocities which, in turn, determine the " capture velocities" of fresh circulating air
required to effectively remove the contaminant.
Type of Contaminant: Air Speed:
direct spray, spray painting in shallow booths, drum filling, conveyer loading, crusher dusts, gas discharge (active generation into zone of rapid air motion) 1-2.5 m/s (200-500 f/min.)
grinding, abrasive blasting, tumbling, high speed wheel generated dusts (released at high initial velocity into zone of very high rapid air motion). 2.5-10 m/s (500-2000 f/min.)
Within each range the appropriate value depends on:
Lower end of the range Upper end of the range
1: Room air currents minimal or favourable to capture 1: Disturbing room air currents
2: Contaminants of low toxicity or of nuisance value only. 2: Contaminants of high toxicity
3: Intermittent, low production. 3: High production, heavy use
4: Large hood or large air mass in motion 4: Small hood-local control only
Simple theory shows that air velocity falls rapidly with distance away from the opening of a simple extraction pipe. Velocity generally decreases with the square of distance from the extraction point (in simple cases). Therefore the air speed at the extraction point should be adjusted, accordingly, after reference to distance from the contaminating source. The air velocity at the extraction fan, for example, should be a minimum of 4- 10 m/s (800- 2000 f/min) for extraction of crusher dusts generated 2 metres distant from the extraction point. Other mechanical considerations, producing performance deficits within the extraction apparatus, make it essential that theoretical air velocities are multiplied by factors of 10 or more when extraction systems are installed or used.

Section 9 - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

APPEARANCE

White powder with a pungent chlorine odour; soluble in water. Powerful oxidising agent; unstable to heat, friction or direct sunlight. Wetting of solid material can
cause heating and decomposition, giving off oxygen and highly toxic chlorine gas.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Solid.
Mixes with water.
Contact with acids liberates toxic gas.

 

StateDivided solidMolecular Weight142.98
Melting Range (ºC)100 decomposesViscosityNot Applicable
Boiling Range (ºC)Not applicable.Solubility in water (g/L)Miscible
Flash Point (ºC)Not ApplicablepH (1% solution)11.5 @ 5%
Decomposition Temp (ºC)100pH (as supplied)Not applicable
Autoignition Temp (ºC)Not applicableVapour Pressure (kPa)Not applicable
Upper Explosive Limit (%)Not available.Specific Gravity (water=1)2.35
Lower Explosive Limit (%)Not availableRelative Vapour Density (air=1)Not applicable.
Volatile Component (%vol)Nil @ 38 C.Evaporation RateNon Volatile

 

StateDivided solidMolecular Weight142.98
Melting Range (ºC)100 decomposesViscosityNot Applicable
Boiling Range (ºC)Not applicable.Solubility in water (g/L)Miscible
Flash Point (ºC)Not ApplicablepH (1% solution)11.5 @ 5%
Decomposition Temp (ºC)100pH (as supplied)Not applicable
Autoignition Temp (ºC)Not applicableVapour Pressure (kPa)Not applicable
Upper Explosive Limit (%)Not available.Specific Gravity (water=1)2.35
Lower Explosive Limit (%)Not availableRelative Vapour Density (air=1)Not applicable.
Volatile Component (%vol)Nil @ 38 C.Evaporation RateNon Volatile

Section 10 - STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

CONDITIONS CONTRIBUTING TO INSTABILITY

· Presence of incompatible materials.
· Product is considered stable under normal handling conditions.
· Prolonged exposure to heat.
· Hazardous polymerisation will not occur.
· Presence of elevated temperatures.
· Presence of incompatible materials.

For incompatible materials - refer to Section 7 - Handling and Storage.

Section 11 - TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

ACUTE HEALTH EFFECTS

SWALLOWED

■ Accidental ingestion of the material may be harmful; animal experiments indicate that ingestion of less than 150 gram may be fatal or may produce serious damage to
the health of the individual.
The material can produce chemical burns within the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract following ingestion.
Ingestion of hypochlorites may cause burning in the mouth and throat, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pain and inflammation of the mouth and stomach,
fall of blood pressure, shock, confusion, and delirium. Severe poisonings may lead to convulsion, coma and death. Ingestion irritates the mouth, throat, and stomach.
The hypochlorous acid liberated in the stomach can cause wall perforation, toxemia, haemorrhage and death.
Necrosis and haemorrhage of the upper digestive tract, oedema and pulmonary emphysema were found on autopsy after suicidal ingestion, and methaemoglobinaemia was
also reported in another fatal case.

EYE

■ The material can produce chemical burns to the eye following direct contact. Vapours or mists may be extremely irritating.
If applied to the eyes, this material causes severe eye damage.
Hypochlorite in pool water at concentrations of 1 ppm chlorine or less is non irritating to eyes if the pH is higher than 7.2 (slightly alkaline); At lower pH
sensation of stinging, smarting of eyes with transient reddening may occur but generally no injury.
Eye contact with a 5% hypochlorite solution may produce a temporary burning discomfort and slight irritation of the corneal epithelium with no injury.

SKIN

■ The material can produce chemical burns following direct contactwith the skin.
Skin contact is not thought to produce harmful health effects (as classified under EC Directives using animal models). Systemic harm, however, has been identified
following exposure of animals by at least one other route and the material may still produce health damage following entry through wounds, lesions or abrasions. Good
hygiene practice requires that exposure be kept to a minimum and that suitable gloves be used in an occupational setting.
Open cuts, abraded or irritated skin should not be exposed to this material.
Contact may cause severe itchiness, skin lesions and mild eczema.
A 5.25% solution of sodium hypochlorite applied to intact human skin for 4 hours and observed at 4, 24 and 48 hours resulted in exudation an slight sloughing of the
skin on 4 of 7 subjects.
Two patients were reported with chronic allergic dermatitis of the hand related to sensitisation to sodium hypochlorite as the active component of laundry bleach.
Entry into the blood- stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use
of the material and ensure that any external damage is suitably protected.

INHALED

■ The material is not thought to produce adverse health effects following inhalation (as classified by EC Directives using animal models). Nevertheless, adverse
systemic effects have been produced following exposure of animals by at least one other route and good hygiene practice requires that exposure be kept to a minimum
and that suitable control measures be used in an occupational setting.
Persons with impaired respiratory function, airway diseases and conditions such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis, may incur further disability if excessive
concentrations of particulate are inhaled.
If prior damage to the circulatory or nervous systems has occurred or if kidney damage has been sustained, proper screenings should be conducted on individuals who
may be exposed to further risk if handling and use of the material result
in excessive exposures.
Chlorine vapour is extremely irritating to the airways and lungs, causing coughing, choking, breathing difficulty, chest pain, headache, vomiting, fluid accumulation
in the lungs, chest infection and loss of consciousness. Effects may be delayed. Long term exposure (at workplace) may lead to corrosion of the teeth, irritate the
linings of the nose and may increase the likelihood of developing tuberculosis. Recent studies have not confirmed these findings. Very low concentrations may
irritate the eyes, nose and throat and cause the above reactions.

CHRONIC HEALTH EFFECTS

■ There has been some concern that this material can cause cancer or mutations but there is not enough data to make an assessment.
Substance accumulation, in the human body, may occur and may cause some concern following repeated or long- term occupational exposure.
There is limited evidence that, skin contact with this product is more likely to cause a sensitisation reaction in some persons compared to the general population.
Reduced respiratory capacity may result from chronic low level exposure to chlorine gas. Chronic poisoning may result in coughing, severe chest pains, sore throat
and haemoptysis (bloody sputum). Moderate to severe exposures over 3 years produced decreased lung capacity in a number of workers.
Delayed effects can include shortness of breath, violent headaches, pulmonary oedema and pneumonia.
Amongst chloralkali workers exposed to mean concentrations of 0.15 ppm for an average of 10.9 years a generalised pattern of fatigue (exposures of 0.5 ppm and above)
and a modest increased incidence of anxiety and dizziness were recorded. Leukocytosis and a lower haematocrit showed some relation to exposure.
Repeated or prolonged exposure to acids may result in the erosion of teeth, swelling and/or ulceration of mouth lining. Irritation of airways to lung, with cough,
and inflammation of lung tissue often occurs. Chronic exposure may inflame the skin or conjunctiva.

TOXICITY AND IRRITATION

■ unless otherwise specified data extracted from RTECS - Register of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE HYPOCHLORITE:
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE:
CHLORINE:
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY:
■ Asthma- like symptoms may continue for months or even years after exposure to the material ceases. This may be due to a non- allergenic condition known as reactive
airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) which can occur following exposure to high levels of highly irritating compound. Key criteria for the diagnosis of RADS include
the absence of preceding respiratory disease, in a non- atopic individual, with abrupt onset of persistent asthma- like symptoms within minutes to hours of a
documented exposure to the irritant. A reversible airflow pattern, on spirometry, with the presence of moderate to severe bronchial hyperreactivity on methacholine
challenge testing and the lack of minimal lymphocytic inflammation, without eosinophilia, have also been included in the criteria for diagnosis of RADS. RADS (or
asthma) following an irritating inhalation is an infrequent disorder with rates related to the concentration of and duration of exposure to the irritating substance.
Industrial bronchitis, on the other hand, is a disorder that occurs as result of exposure due to high concentrations of irritating substance (often particulate in
nature) and is completely reversible after exposure ceases. The disorder is characterised by dyspnea, cough and mucus production.
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE:
CALCIUM CHLORIDE:
■ The material may produce severe irritation to the eye causing pronounced inflammation. Repeated or prolonged exposure to irritants may produce conjunctivitis.
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE HYPOCHLORITE:
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY:
■ Hypochlorite salts are extremely corrosive and can cause severe damage to the eyes and skin. A number of skin cancers have been observed in mice, when applied to
their skin.
■ Hypochlorite salts are classified by IARC as Group 3: NOT classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.
Evidence of carcinogenicity may be inadequate or limited in animal testing.
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY:
TOXICITY IRRITATION
Oral (rat) LD50: 850 mg/kg Nil Reported
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE HYPOCHLORITE:
TOXICITY IRRITATION
Oral (rat) LD50: 850 mg/kg Nil Reported
[CCINFO]* as calcium hypochlorite CAS 7778- 54- 3 CALCIUM CHLORIDE:
TOXICITY IRRITATION
Oral (rat) LD50: 1000 mg/kg Skin (unknown): moderate*
Subcutaneous (Dog) LDLo: 274 mg/kg Eye (unknown): severe* [ICI]
Intravenous (Dog) LDLo: 274 mg/kg
Subcutaneous (Cat) LDLo: 249 mg/kg
Intravenous (Cat) LDLo: 249 mg/kg
Oral (Rabbit) LDLo: 1384 mg/kg
Subcutaneous (Rabbit) LDLo: 472 mg/kg
Intravenous (Rabbit) LDLo: 274 mg/kg
Intravenous (Guinea pig) LDLo: 150 mg/kg
Oral (Rabbit) LD50: 1384 mg/kg
Intraperitoneal (Mouse) LD50: 600 mg/kg
Intravenous (Dog) TDLo: 39.95 mg/kg
Intraperitoneal (Mouse) LD: 399.5 mg/kg
Intravenous (Rat) TDLo: 300 mg/kg
Intravenous (Human) TDLo: 20 mg/kg
Intraperitoneal (Rat) LD50: 264 mg/kg
Subcutaneous (Rat) LD50: 2630 mg/kg
Intravenous (Rat) LDLo: 161 mg/kg
Oral (Mouse) LD50: 1940 mg/kg
Intraperitoneal (Mouse) LD50: 210 mg/kg
Subcutaneous (Mouse) LD50: 823 mg/kg
Intravenous (Mouse) LD50: 42 mg/kg
■ The material may cause skin irritation after prolonged or repeated exposure and may produce on contact skin redness, swelling, the production of vesicles, scaling and thickening of the skin. for calcium: Toxicity from calcium is not common because the gastrointestinal tract normally limits the amount of calcium absorbed. Therefore, short- term intake of large amounts of calcium does not generally produce any ill effects aside from constipation and an increased risk of kidney stones . However, more severe toxicity can occur when excess calcium is ingested over long periods, or when calcium is combined with increased amounts of vitamin D, which increases calcium absorption. Calcium toxicity is also sometimes found after excessive intravenous administration of calcium. Toxicity is manifested by abnormal deposition of calcium in tissues and by elevated blood calcium levels (hypercalcaemia). However, hypercalcaemia is often due to other causes, such as abnormally high amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Usually, under these circumstances, bone density is lost and the resulting hypercalcaemia can cause kidney stones and abdominal pain. Some cancers can also cause hypercalcaemia, either by secreting abnormal proteins that act like PTH or by invading and killing bone cells causing them to release calcium. Very high levels of calcium can result in appetite loss, nausea , vomiting, abdominal pain, confusion, seizures, and even coma. for calcium chloride: Acute toxicity: The acute oral toxicity of calcium chloride is low: LD50 in mice is 1940- 2045 mg/kg bw, 3798- 4179 mg/kg bw in rats, and 500- 1000 mg/kg bw in rabbits. The acute oral toxicity is attributed to the severe irritating property of the original substance or its high- concentration solutions to the gastrointestinal tract. In humans, however, acute oral toxicity is rare because large single doses induce nausea and vomiting. The dermal acute toxicity is negligible: LD50 in rabbits >5000 mg/kg bw. No significant change was found by gross necropsy examination except skin lesions at or near the site of administration. Hypercalcaemia may occur only when there exists other factors that alter calcium homeostasis, such as renal inefficiency and primary hyperthyroidism. Irritation/corrosiveness studies conducted under OECD test guidelines indicate that calcium chloride is not/slightly irritating to skin but severely irritating to eyes of rabbits. Prolonged exposure and application of moistened material or concentrated solutions resulted in considerable skin irritation, however. Irritating effect of the substance was observed in human skin injuries caused by incidental contact with the substance or its high- concentration solutions. Repeat dose toxicity: A limited oral repeated dose toxicity study shows no adverse effect of calcium chloride on rats fed on 1000- 2000 mg/kg bw/day for 12 months. Calcium and chloride are both essential nutrients for humans and a daily intake of more than 1000 mg each of the ions is recommended. The establishment of the ADI for calcium chloride has not been deemed necessary by JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) Genotoxicity: Genetic toxicity of calcium chloride was negative in the bacterial mutation tests and the mammalian chromosome aberration test. Reproductive and developmental toxicity: No reproductive toxicity study has been reported. A developmental toxicity study equivalent to an OECD Guideline study, on the other hand, reveals no toxic effects on dams or foetuses at doses up to 189 mg/kg bw/day (mice), 176 mg/kg bw/day (rats) and 169 mg/kg bw/day (rabbits). CALCIUM HYDROXIDE:
TOXICITY IRRITATION
Oral (rat) LD50: 7340 mg/kg Eye (rabbit): 10 mg - SEVERE
CHLORINE:
TOXICITY IRRITATION
Inhalation (human) LCLo: 500 ppm/5 minutes
Inhalation (rat) LC50: 293 ppm/1 hour

 

CARCINOGEN

Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compoundsInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC MonographsGroup1
Hypochlorite saltsInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC MonographsGroup3

 

Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

CALCIUM HYDROXIDE HYPOCHLORITE:
CHLORINE:
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY:
■ For chlorine:
Environmental fate:
Atmospheric chlorine produced as a result of such process as disinfection forms hydrochloric (HCl) or hypochlorous (HOCl) acid in the atmosphere, either through
reactions with hydroxy radicals or other trace species such as hydrocarbons. These acids are believed to removed from the atmosphere primarily through precipitation
washout (i.e. wet deposition as chlorine is scrubbed out by rain in the subcloud layer) or dry deposition as gaseous chlorine contacts and reacts with the earths
surface.
Water chlorination, resulting from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment and cooling water disinfection, initially introduces chlorine into the water as
chlorine gas, hypochlorite ion (OCl- ), or its salt. These forms of chlorine are termed free residual chlorines (FRC). Chlorine in aqueous systems volatilises or
quickly decays to residual forms such as hypochlorous acid, chloramine and chlorinated organics. Aquatic chemistry is determined by aquatic factors including pH,
ammonium ion (which combines with chlorine to produce chloramine) and certain other reducing agents. Inorganic reducing agents in estuarine waters include sulfur,
iron and manganese. Other organic compounds in water also contribute to chlorine decay rate. The reactions of chlorine or hypochlorites in water produce a number of
by- products many of which have been implicated as genotoxic or tumourigenic.
Chlorine, added to drinking water as chlorine gas (Cl2) or hypochlorite salts (e.g., NaOCl), effectively inactivates bacteria in 20 minutes at concentrations of 0.03
to 0.06 mg/l at pH range of 7.0 to 8.5 and temperature range of 4 deg.C to 22 deg.C.
Chlorine disinfectants in wastewater react with organic matters, giving rise to organic chlorine compounds such as AOX (halogenated organic compounds absorbable on
activated carbon), which are toxic for aquatic organisms and are persistent environmental contaminants.
Chlorine hydrolyses very rapidly in water (rate constants range from 1.5 x 10- 4 at deg. C to 4.0 x 10- 4 at 25 deg.C; half- life in natural waters, 0.005 seconds.
In fresh and wastewaters at pH >6, complete hydrolysis occurs with the formation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and chloride ion (Cl- ). The hypochlorous acid ionizes
to hydrogen ion (H+) and hypochlorite ion (OCl- ). At pH values >5, OCl- predominates; at pH values <5, HOCl predominates. Free chlorine (Cl2, HOCl, and OCl- )
reacts rapidly with inorganics such as bromide and more slowly with organic material present in natural waters. These reactions yield chloride, oxidised organics,
chloroorganics (including trihalomethanes), oxygen, nitrogen, chlorate, bromate and bromoorganics.
Chlorines ultimate aqueous fate is chloride.
Vapourisation of molecular chlorine (Cl2) from water to the atmosphere may be significant at low pH values and high concentrations (e.g., pH 2 and 3500 mg/l
chlorine), but is insignificant at neutral pH and low concentrations.
Vegetation acts as an important sink for chlorine air pollution. Plant exposure to elevated levels of chlorine can cause plant injury; however chlorine tends to be
rapidly converted to other less toxic forms.
Atmospheric: When chlorine, hypochlorous acid or hydrogen chloride mixes in the atmosphere with water vapour, dilute solutions of strong mineral acids are formed
that fall to earth as acid rain, snow, and fog, or acidified dry particles.
Chlorine may react with soil components to form chlorides; depending on their water solubility, these chlorides are easily washed out from the soil.
Bioaccumulation/ bioconcentration: There is no potential for the bioaccumulation or bioconcentration of chlorine.
Ecotoxicity:
Fish LC50 (96 h): 0.015- 13.5 mg/l
Chlorine has high acute toxicity to aquatic organisms; many toxicity values are less than or equal to 1 mg/l. Twenty- four- hour LC50 values range from 0.076 to 0.16
mg/l for Daphnia magna (water flea) and from 0.005 to 0.1 m/l for Daphnia pulex (cladocern); 48- hour LC50 values range from 5.3 to 12.8 m/l for Nitocra spinipes
(snail); and 96- hour LC50 values range from 0.13 to 0.29 mg/L for Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), from 0.1 to 0.18 mg/l for Salvelinus fontinalis (brook
trout), and from 0.71- 0.82 mg/l for Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish)
Papillomas of the oral cavity in fish have been associated with exposure to chlorinated water supplies.
Chlorine is phytotoxic but is also essential to plant growth; crops need around 2 kg or more of chlorine per acre. Acute toxicity to plants is characterized by
defoliation with no leaf symptoms and, in higher plant forms, by spotting of the leaves (at 1.5 mg/m3) and marginal and interveinal injury (at 150- 300 mg/m3)
Data from experimental studies indicate that injury to animals occurs only in the presence of high concentrations of chlorine, either in drinking water or the
ambient atmosphere.
http://www.epa.gov/chemfact/s_chlori.txt
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY August 1994.
■ Do NOT allow product to come in contact with surface waters or to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. Do not contaminate water when cleaning equipment
or disposing of equipment wash- waters.
Wastes resulting from use of the product must be disposed of on site or at approved waste sites.
■ Very toxic to aquatic organisms.
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE HYPOCHLORITE:
CALCIUM CHLORIDE:
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE:
CHLORINE:
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY:
■ DO NOT discharge into sewer or waterways.
CHLORINE:
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY:
■ The material is classified as an ecotoxin* because the Fish LC50 (96 hours) is less than or equal to 0.1 mg/l
* Classification of Substances as Ecotoxic (Dangerous to the Environment)
Appendix 8, Table 1
Compiler' s Guide for the Preparation of International Chemical Safety Cards: 1993 Commission of the European Communities.
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE HYPOCHLORITE:
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY:
■ for hypochlorites:
Environmental fate:
NOTE: Hypochlorite ion is predominant at alkaline pH values, while Cl2 is mainly present at pH below 4. Therefore the concentration of chlorine in an aqueous
solution is generally expressed as free available chlorine (FAC) which is the sum of Cl2 + HOCl + ClO- , regardless whether these species stem from dissolved gaseous
chlorine or from dissolved sodium/calcium hypochlorite
Hypochlorite anion dissolved in water is brought to equilibrium between active chlorine species like chlorine (Cl2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or hypochlorite ClO- .
The relative amounts of the components are dependent on ionic strength and pH. At the pH in the natural environment (6- 8), HOCl or ClO is dominating (HClO: pKa =
7.53). A diluted aqueous solution of HOCl will decompose very slowly in the dark, but more rapidly in the presence of light, particularly rapidly in full sun light,
by producing hydrogen chloride and oxygen. Some chlorine and chloric acid (HClO3) may also develop. The physico- chemical properties indicate that chlorine released
into the environment as HClO or Cl2 is distributed into water and air. Consequently, the effects that may manifest in the natural environment are considered common
to those assessed for the other source of hypochlorite.
In the natural water, in the presence of organic or inorganic compounds, the free available chlorine immediately reacts forming various chlorinated and/or oxidized
by- products e.g. chloramines or chloromethanes. They are mainly distributed to the hydrosphere, but are also able to transfer to some extent to the atmosphere
depending on their intrinsic properties. A potential for bioaccumulation or bioconcentration of active chlorine species can be disregarded, because of their water
solubility and their high reactivity.
In fresh water, the hypochlorites break down rapidly into non- toxic compounds when exposed to sunlight. In seawater, chlorine levels decline rapidly; however,
hypobromite (which is acutely toxic to aquatic organisms) is formed. Sodium and calcium hypochlorite are low in toxicity to avian wildlife, but they are highly toxic
to freshwater fish and invertebrates.
Hypochlorite is a highly reactive chemical which, during and after its use in household scenarios, undergoes a variety of reactions. The major one is the oxidation
of inorganic and organic species.
A minor reaction, which consumes about 1.5% of the chlorine atoms from hypochlorite, is chlorination, which leads to formation of organohalogen by- products that are
often measured by the group parameter, AOX.
Hypochlorite itself is rapidly broken down during use, in the sewer, and if any does reach sewage treatment it will further degrade (half- life of around 0.6
minutes). Predictions have indicated that its concentration will fall to below 1.E- 32 ug/l by the end of the sewer, partially due to its reaction with ammonia in
the sewer which leads to a subsequent increase in chloramine.
The organohalogen by- products formed from the use of hypochlorite are currently receiving much attention. However, the levels of AOX produced are low (for example,
37 ug/l from bleach use compared to a sewage background level of 106 ug/l), and the organohalogens produced from domestic use of hypochlorite are not believed to
have an adverse effect on the environment. Available data indicate that no dioxins are produced, and that the identified AOXs are typically small molecules with a
low degree of chlorination and for which ecotoxicological properties are known or can be predicted. Where drinking water is disinfected by chlorination, the levels
of organohalogens in sewage effluent arising from bleach use will be comparable with, and sometimes only a fraction of, those arising from the tap- water. After
secondary sewage treatment, the levels entering receiving waters will be of the same order of magnitude as background levels typically present in rivers, though the
total flux in rivers from natural sources will be much greater.
The majority of the measured AOX is unidentified, but thought to consist of high molecular weight components formed from fats, proteins and humic acids which are too
large to bioaccumulate.
In addition, studies on the whole AOX mixture in laundry waste- water indicated that the level of AOX present did not effect growth or reproduction of Ceriodaphnia,
and that around 70% is removed in activated sludge.
Ecotoxicity:
The level of chloramine reaching surface water is estimated to be below 5.E- 10 ug/l. Both these concentrations are orders of magnitude below the lowest acute EC50s
determined for sodium hypochlorite (EC50 to invertebrates = 5 ug/l) and monochloramine (EC50 to invertebrates = 16 ug/l).
Valid freshwater short- term toxicity data are available only for invertebrates: the LC50 for Ceriodaphnia dubia is 5 ug FAC/l (FAC=Free available chlorine).
Adequate standard acute tests in fish are not available, but from many reliable studies performed under intermittent exposure conditions a 96h LC50 of 60 ug TRC/L
and a 168 h LC50 of 330 ug TRC/L can be derived (TRC = total residual chlorine = the sum of combined and free residual available chlorine). Due to the intermittent
regime (three 45 minutes pulses per day) a 96h LC50 << 60 ug TRC/l can be expected for fish in a standard test. Most lowest result for algae is reported for
Thalassiosira pseudonana with a IC50 of 75 ug/L (20 deg C).
Regarding long- term toxicity to freshwater organisms, the lowest NOEC was 5 ug/L (Ictalurus punctatus, 133 d, growth). In microcosm and field studies the most
sensitive parameter was the density of zooplankton with a NOEC of 1.5 ug TRC/L, and zooplankton is more sensitive to chlorine than algae.
For salt water, valid short- term toxicity data are available for mollusks and for fish (Oncorhynchus kisutch 96 h LC50 = 32 ug TRO/L) (TRO = Total Residual Oxidant)
showing comparable sensitivity. For long term toxicity the molluscs are more sensitive than fish showing a 15 d NOEC of 6.2 ug TRO/L. It is impossible to delineate
representative toxicity indicator figures because of the unique feature of the chemical to be tested in standard methods. However, the accumulated scientific
information covering a wide range of species, temperature, application regime or field studies can be used for the hazard assessment.
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY:
Marine PollutantYes
■ The material is classified as an ecotoxin* because the Daphnia EC50 (48 hours) is less than or equal to 0.1 mg/l * Classification of Substances as Ecotoxic (Dangerous to the Environment) Appendix 8, Table 1 Compiler' s Guide for the Preparation of International Chemical Safety Cards: 1993 Commission of the European Communities. CALCIUM HYDROXIDE HYPOCHLORITE:
Marine PollutantYes
CALCIUM CHLORIDE:
Fish LC50 (96hr.) (mg/l):&nbsp;
8.4 (24hr)
■ for calcium chloride: Environmental fate: Calcium chlorides vapour pressure is negligible and its water solubility is 745 g/L at 20 deg C. Calcium chloride is readily dissociated into calcium and chloride ions in water. These physico- chemical properties indicate that calcium chloride released into the environment is distributed into the water compartment in the form of calcium and chloride ions. Ecotoxicity: Fish LC50 (96 h): Pimephales promelas 4630 mg/l Algae EC50 (72 h): Selenastrum capricornutum 2900 mg/l Daphnia magna EC50 (48 h): 1062 mg/l The chronic toxicity study with Daphnia magna shows that a 16% impairment of reproduction (EC16) is caused at the concentration of 320 mg/L. The 72- hour EC20 for Selenastrum capricornutum determined by the OECD TG 201 study is 1000 mg/L. All the data compiled on the acute and chronic toxicity are greater than 100 mg/L. Although inorganic chloride ions are not normally considered toxic they can exist in effluents at acutely toxic levels (chloride >3000 mg/l). The resulting salinity can exceed the tolerances of most freshwater organisms. Inorganic chlorine eventually finds its way into the aqueous compartment and as such is bioavailable. Incidental exposure to inorganic chloride may occur in occupational settings where chemicals management policies are improperly applied. The toxicity of chloride salts depends on the counter- ion (cation) present; that of chloride itself is unknown. Chloride toxicity has not been observed in humans except in the special case of impaired sodium chloride metabolism, e.g. in congestive heart failure. Healthy individuals can tolerate the intake of large quantities of chloride provided that there is a concomitant intake of fresh water. Although excessive intake of drinking- water containing sodium chloride at concentrations above 2.5 g/litre has been reported to produce hypertension, this effect is believed to be related to the sodium ion concentration. Chloride concentrations in excess of about 250 mg/litre can give rise to detectable taste in water, but the threshold depends upon the associated cations. Consumers can, however, become accustomed to concentrations in excess of 250 mg/litre. No health- based guideline value is proposed for chloride in drinking- water. In humans, 88% of chloride is extracellular and contributes to the osmotic activity of body fluids. The electrolyte balance in the body is maintained by adjusting total dietary intake and by excretion via the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. Chloride is almost completely absorbed in normal individuals, mostly from the proximal half of the small intestine. Normal fluid loss amounts to about 1.5- 2 liters/day, together with about 4 g of chloride per day. Most (90 - 95%) is excreted in the urine, with minor amounts in faeces (4- 8%) and sweat (2%). Chloride increases the electrical conductivity of water and thus increases its corrosivity. In metal pipes, chloride reacts with metal ions to form soluble salts thus increasing levels of metals in drinking- water. In lead pipes, a protective oxide layer is built up, but chloride enhances galvanic corrosion. It can also increase the rate of pitting corrosion of metal pipes. CALCIUM HYDROXIDE:
Fish LC50 (96hr.) (mg/l):&nbsp;
160
■ Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water courses. CHLORINE:
Marine PollutantYes
Hazardous Air Pollutant:&nbsp;
Yes
Fish LC50 (96hr.) (mg/l):&nbsp;
0.44
Daphnia magna EC50 (48hr.) (mg/l):&nbsp;
0.49 (96hr

Ecotoxicity

IngredientPersistence: Water/SoilPersistence: AirBioaccumulationMobility
calcium hypochlorite, dryLOWNo Data AvailableLOWHIGH
calcium hydroxide hypochloriteNo Data AvailableNo Data Available
calcium chlorideNo Data AvailableNo Data AvailableLOW
calcium hydroxideNo Data AvailableNo Data AvailableLOW
chlorineNo Data AvailableNo Data AvailableLOW

 

GESAMP/EHS COMPOSITE LIST - GESAMP Hazard Profiles

Name /     EHS  TRN  A1a  A1b  A1   A2   B1   B2   C1   C2   C3   D1   D2   D3   E1   E2   E3
Cas No /
RTECS No
_________  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___
Calcium    207  163  Ino       0    Ino  (4)  NI   1    0    2    3A   3              D    3
hypochlor  3         rg             rg
ite
solutions

containin
g less
than 15%
but more
than 1.5%
Ca(OCl)2
/
CAS:7778-
 54- 3 /


Legend:
EHS=EHS Number (EHS=GESAMP Working Group on the Evaluation of the Hazards of Harmful Substances Carried by Ships) NRT=Net Register Tonnage, A1a=Bioaccumulation log Pow, A1b=Bioaccumulation BCF, A1=Bioaccumulation, A2=Biodegradation, B1=Acuteaquatic toxicity LC/ECIC50 (mg/l), B2=Chronic aquatic toxicity NOEC (mg/l), C1=Acute mammalian oral toxicity LD50 (mg/kg), C2=Acutemammalian dermal toxicity LD50 (mg/kg), C3=Acute mammalian inhalation toxicity LC50 (mg/kg), D1=Skin irritation & corrosion, D2=Eye irritation& corrosion, D3=Long-term health effects, E1=Tainting, E2=Physical effects on wildlife & benthic habitats, E3=Interference with coastal amenities,
For column A2: R=Readily biodegradable, NR=Not readily biodegradable.
For column D3: C=Carcinogen, M=Mutagenic, R=Reprotoxic, S=Sensitising, A=Aspiration hazard, T=Target organ systemic toxicity, L=Lunginjury, N=Neurotoxic, I=Immunotoxic.
For column E1: NT=Not tainting (tested), T=Tainting test positive.
For column E2: Fp=Persistent floater, F=Floater, S=Sinking substances.
The numerical scales start from 0 (no hazard), while higher numbers reflect increasing hazard.
(GESAMP/EHS Composite List of Hazard Profiles - Hazard evaluation of substances transported by ships)

Section 13 - DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

· Containers may still present a chemical hazard/ danger when empty.
· Return to supplier for reuse/ recycling if possible.
Otherwise:
· If container can not be cleaned sufficiently well to ensure that residuals do not remain or if the container cannot be used to store the same product, then puncture containers, to prevent re-use, and bury at an authorised landfill.
· Where possible retain label warnings and MSDS and observe all notices pertaining to the product.
Legislation addressing waste disposal requirements may differ by country, state and/ or territory. Each user must refer to laws operating in their area. In some areas, certain wastes must be tracked.
A Hierarchy of Controls seems to be common - the user should investigate:
· Reduction
· Reuse
· Recycling
· Disposal (if all else fails)
This material may be recycled if unused, or if it has not been contaminated so as to make it unsuitable for its intended use. Shelf life considerations should also be applied in making decisions of this type. Note that properties of a material may change in use, and recycling or reuse may not always be appropriate.
· DO NOT allow wash water from cleaning or process equipment to enter drains.
· It may be necessary to collect all wash water for treatment before disposal.
· In all cases disposal to sewer may be subject to local laws and regulations and these should be considered first.
· Where in doubt contact the responsible authority.
For small quantities of oxidising agent:
· Cautiously acidify a 3% solution to pH 2 with sulfuric acid.
· Gradually add a 50% excess of sodium bisulfite solution with stirring.
· Add a further 10% sodium bisulfite.
· If no further reaction occurs (as indicated by a rise in temperature) cautiously add more acid.
· Recycle wherever possible or consult manufacturer for recycling options.
· Consult State Land Waste Management Authority for disposal.
· Bury residue in an authorised landfill.
· Recycle containers if possible, or dispose of in an authorised landfill.
Dissolve, neutralise and decant as liquid.
Aqueous solutions of calcium hypochlorite may be neutralised with sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfate or dilute hydrogen peroxide. DO NOT use acids as chlorine gas will be liberated. Only after there is no residual chlorine, neutralise the resulting solution with dilute hydrochloric or sulfuric acid.
Discharge neutral liquid to sewer, diluted with water.
Bury residue in an authorised landfill.

Section 14 - TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION

Labels Required: OXIDIZING AGENT

HAZCHEM:

1W (ADG7)

ADG7:

Class or Division: 5.1 Subsidiary Risk: None
UN No.: 1748 Packing Group: II
Special Provision: 313, 314 Limited Quantity: 1 kg
Portable Tanks & Bulk Containers - Instruction: None Portable Tanks & Bulk Containers - Special Provision: None
Packagings & IBCs - Packing Instruction: PP85 B2, B4, B13 Packagings & IBCs - Special Packing Provision: P002, IBC08
Name and Description: CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY or CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE MIXTURE, DRY with more than 39% available chlorine (8.8% available oxygen)

Land Transport UNDG:

Class or division: 5.1 Subsidiary risk: None
UN No.: 1748 UN packing group: II
Shipping Name:CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY or CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE MIXTURE, DRY with more than 39% available chlorine (8.8% available oxygen)

Air Transport IATA:

UN/ID Number: 1748 Packing Group: II
Special provisions: A136
Shipping Name: CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY

Maritime Transport IMDG:

IMDG Class: 5.1 IMDG Subrisk: None
UN Number: 1748 Packing Group: II
EMS Number: F-H,S-Q Special provisions: 314
Limited Quantities: 1 kg Marine Pollutant: Yes
Shipping Name: CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, DRY or CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE MIXTURE, DRY with more than 39% available chlorine (8.8% available oxy

 

GESAMP hazard profiles for this material can be found in section 12 of the MSDS.

Section 15 - REGULATORY INFORMATION

POISONS SCHEDULE AS6 NZS3

REGULATIONS

calcium hypochlorite, dry (CAS: 7778-54-3) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","GESAMP/EHS Composite List - GESAMP Hazard Profiles","IMO IBC Code Chapter 17: Summary of minimum requirements","IMO MARPOL 73/78 (Annex II) - List of Noxious Liquid Substances Carried in Bulk","International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) - High Production Volume List"

Regulations for ingredients

calcium hydroxide hypochlorite (CAS: 12394-14-8) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Ambient environmental standards (AQUA/1 to 6 - inorganic chemicals)","Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Ambient environmental standards (Domestic water supply - disinfection by-products)","Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Pollutants entering waterways taken to cause environmental harm (Aquatic habitat)","Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Pollutants entering waterways taken to cause environmental harm (Domestic water supply quality)","Australia - Queensland Hazardous Materials and Prescribed Quantities for Major Hazard Facilities","Australia Exposure Standards","Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","Australia National Pollutant Inventory","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix E (Part 2)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix G","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix J (Part 2)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 7","International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) - High Production Volume List","WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality - Guideline values for chemicals that are of health significance in drinking-water"

calcium chloride (CAS: 10043-52-4) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","CODEX General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) - Additives Permitted for Use in Food in General, Unless Otherwise Specified, in Accordance with GMP","IMO Provisional Categorization of Liquid Substances - List 3: (Trade-named) mixtures containing at least 99% by weight of components already assessed by IMO, presenting safety hazards","International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) - High Production Volume List"

calcium hydroxide (CAS: 1305-62-0,1332-69-0) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia Exposure Standards","Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","Australia Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) Substances that may be used as active ingredients in Listed medicines","CODEX General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) - Additives Permitted for Use in Food in General, Unless Otherwise Specified, in Accordance with GMP","GESAMP/EHS Composite List - GESAMP Hazard Profiles","IMO IBC Code Chapter 17: Summary of minimum requirements","IMO MARPOL 73/78 (Annex II) - List of Noxious Liquid Substances Carried in Bulk","International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) - High Production Volume List"

chlorine (CAS: 7782-50-5) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Ambient environmental standards (AQUA/1 to 6 - inorganic chemicals)","Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Ambient environmental standards (Domestic water supply - disinfection by-products)","Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Pollutants entering waterways taken to cause environmental harm (Aquatic habitat)","Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Pollutants entering waterways taken to cause environmental harm (Domestic water supply quality)","Australia - Queensland Hazardous Materials and Prescribed Quantities for Major Hazard Facilities","Australia Exposure Standards","Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","Australia National Pollutant Inventory","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix E (Part 2)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix G","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix J (Part 2)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 7","International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) - High Production Volume List","WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality - Guideline values for chemicals that are of health significance in drinking-water"

Section 16 - OTHER INFORMATION

INGREDIENTS WITH MULTIPLE CAS NUMBERS

Ingredient Name CAS
calcium hydroxide 1305-62-0, 1332-69-0

 

CONTACT POINT

Paul Milward-Bason
17 Grandview Parade
Moolap 3221
Victoria Australia

 

■ Classification of the preparation and its individual components has drawn on official and authoritative sources as well as independent review by the Chemwatch Classification committee using available literature references.
A list of reference resources used to assist the committee may be found at:
www.chemwatch.net/references.

 

■ The (M)SDS is a Hazard Communication tool and should be used to assist in the Risk Assessment. Many factors determine whether the reported Hazards are Risks in the workplace or other settings. Risks may be determined by reference to Exposures Scenarios. Scale of use, frequency of use and current or available engineering controls must be considered.

 

 

This document is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, review or
criticism, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written
permission from CHEMWATCH. TEL (+61 3) 9572 4700.

 

Issue Date: 24-Apr-2009

Print Date: 17-Feb-2012

 

 

This is the end of the MSDS.