Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet

Issue Date: 26-Dec-2008



Version No:7





CORROSIVE SOLID, ACIDIC, ORGANIC, N.O.S.(contains benzalkonium chloride)


■ The cationic surfactants alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides (ADMBAC) and bromides (ADMBAB) are used in cosmetic products including hair conditioners and hair coloring preparations. Besides being surfactants and antistatic agents, the alkyldimethylbenzylammonium compounds function as biocides in various cosmetic and detergent products. The biocidal properties are utilised, when ADMBAC are added to all-purpose or specialised cleaning agents.
Structurally they may be represented by: C6H5CH2N(CH3)2R+.X-. The linear alkyl chain R, usually contains 8 to 18 carbons, and the counter ion, X-, may be either Cl- or Br-.
Quaternary ammonium cationic detergent, surface active agent. Active component of germicides and fungicides. Dilute preparations are used as a topical anti-infective, an antiseptic for skin wounds and burns. In veterinary use; and an udder wash for cows.


Company: Sigma- Aldrich Pty Ltd
12 Anella Avenue
Castle Hill
NSW, 2154
Telephone: +61 2 9841 0555
Telephone: 1800 800 097
Emergency Tel: +44 8701906777
Emergency Tel: 1800 448 456
Fax: +61 2 9841 0500
Website: www.sigma-





Flammability 1
Toxicity 2
Body Contact 3
Reactivity 1
Chronic 2
SCALE: Min/Nil=0 Low=1 Moderate=2 High=3 Extreme=4


■ Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed. • Keep locked up.
■ Causes burns. • Do not breathe dust.
■ Risk of serious damage to eyes. • Avoid contact with skin.
■ Very toxic to aquatic organisms. • Avoid contact with eyes.
■ Cumulative effects may result following exposure*. • Wear suitable protective clothing.
■ Possible respiratory and skin sensitiser*. • Wear suitable gloves.
* (limited evidence). • Wear eye/ face protection.
• Do not empty into drains.
• To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use water.
• This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way.
• Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
• In case of contact with eyes, rinse with plenty of water and contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre.
• In case of accident or if you feel unwell, IMMEDIATELY contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre (show label if possible).
• Use appropriate container to avoid environment contamination.
• Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/ safety data sheets.
• This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
• In case of accident by inhalation: remove casualty to fresh air and keep at rest.



benzalkonium chloride 8001-54-5 >99
(product is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzyl-
ammonium chlorides where the alkyl group may
vary from C8H17 to C18H37)



· For advice, contact a Poisons Information Centre or a doctor at once.
· Urgent hospital treatment is likely to be needed.
· If swallowed do NOT induce vomiting.
· If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain open airway and prevent aspiration.
· Observe the patient carefully.
· Never give liquid to a person showing signs of being sleepy or with reduced awareness; i.e. becoming unconscious.
· Give water to rinse out mouth, then provide liquid slowly and as much as casualty can comfortably drink.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.


■ If this product comes in contact with the eyes:
· Immediately hold eyelids apart and flush the eye continuously with running water.
· Ensure complete irrigation of the eye by keeping eyelids apart and away from eye and moving the eyelids by occasionally lifting the upper and lower lids.
· Continue flushing until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre or a doctor, or for at least 15 minutes.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.
· Removal of contact lenses after an eye injury should only be undertaken by skilled personnel.


■ If skin or hair contact occurs:
· Immediately flush body and clothes with large amounts of water, using safety shower if available.
· Quickly remove all contaminated clothing, including footwear.
· Wash skin and hair with running water. Continue flushing with water until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor.


· If fumes or combustion products are inhaled remove from contaminated area.
· Lay patient down. Keep warm and rested.
· Prostheses such as false teeth, which may block airway, should be removed, where possible, prior to initiating first aid procedures.
· Apply artificial respiration if not breathing, preferably with a demand valve resuscitator, bag-valve mask device, or pocket mask as trained. Perform CPR if necessary.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor, without delay.
· Inhalation of vapours or aerosols (mists, fumes) may cause lung oedema.
· Corrosive substances may cause lung damage (e.g. lung oedema, fluid in the lungs).
· As this reaction may be delayed up to 24 hours after exposure, affected individuals need complete rest (preferably in semi-recumbent posture) and must be kept under medical observation even if no symptoms are (yet) manifested.
· Before any such manifestation, the administration of a spray containing a dexamethasone derivative or beclomethasone derivative may be considered.
This must definitely be left to a doctor or person authorised by him/her.


■ For acute or short term repeated exposures to strong acids:
· Airway problems may arise from laryngeal edema and inhalation exposure. Treat with 100% oxygen initially.
· Respiratory distress may require cricothyroidotomy if endotracheal intubation is contraindicated by excessive swelling
· Intravenous lines should be established immediately in all cases where there is evidence of circulatory compromise.
· Strong acids produce a coagulation necrosis characterised by formation of a coagulum (eschar) as a result of the dessicating action of the acid on proteins in
specific tissues.
· Immediate dilution (milk or water) within 30 minutes post ingestion is recommended.
· DO NOT attempt to neutralise the acid since exothermic reaction may extend the corrosive injury.
·  Be careful to avoid further vomit since re- exposure of the mucosa to the acid is harmful. Limit fluids to one or two glasses in an adult.
· Charcoal has no place in acid management.
· Some authors suggest the use of lavage within 1 hour of ingestion.
· Skin lesions require copious saline irrigation. Treat chemical burns as thermal burns with non- adherent gauze and wrapping.
· Deep second- degree burns may benefit from topical silver sulfadiazine.
· Eye injuries require retraction of the eyelids to ensure thorough irrigation of the conjuctival cul- de- sacs. Irrigation should last at least 20- 30 minutes. DO
NOT use neutralising agents or any other additives. Several litres of saline are required.
· Cycloplegic drops, (1% cyclopentolate for short- term use or 5% homatropine for longer term use) antibiotic drops, vasoconstrictive agents or artificial tears may
be indicated dependent on the severity of the injury.
· Steroid eye drops should only be administered with the approval of a consulting ophthalmologist).
[Ellenhorn and Barceloux: Medical Toxicology].
For exposures to quaternary ammonium compounds;
·  For ingestion of concentrated solutions (10% or higher): Swallow promptly a large quantity of milk, egg whites / gelatin solution. If not readily available, a
slurry of activated charcoal may be useful. Avoid alcohol. Because of probable mucosal damage omit gastric lavage and emetic drugs.
· For dilute solutions (2% or less): If little or no emesis appears spontaneously, administer syrup of Ipecac or perform gastric lavage.
· If hypotension becomes severe, institute measures against circulatory shock.
· If respiration laboured, administer oxygen and support breathing mechanically. Oropharyngeal airway may be inserted in absence of gag reflex. Epiglottic or
laryngeal edema may necessitate a tracheotomy.
· Persistent convulsions may be controlled by cautious intravenous injection of diazepam or short- acting barbiturate drugs. [Gosselin et al, Clinical Toxicology of
Commercial Products].



· Water spray or fog.
· Foam.
· Dry chemical powder.
· BCF (where regulations permit).
· Carbon dioxide.


· Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
· Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus.
· Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course.
· Use fire fighting procedures suitable for surrounding area.
· Do not approach containers suspected to be hot.
· Cool fire exposed containers with water spray from a protected location.
· If safe to do so, remove containers from path of fire.
· Equipment should be thoroughly decontaminated after use.


· Combustible.
· Slight fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame.
· Acids may react with metals to produce hydrogen, a highly flammable and explosive gas.
· Heating may cause expansion or decomposition leading to violent rupture of containers.
· May emit acrid smoke and corrosive fumes.
Combustion products include: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen chloride, phosgene, nitrogen oxides (NOx), other pyrolysis products typical of
burning organic material.


· Avoid contamination with oxidising agents i.e. nitrates, oxidising acids, chlorine bleaches, pool chlorine etc. as ignition may result.



Personal Protective Equipment

Breathing apparatus.
Gas tight chemical resistant suit.
Limit exposure duration to 1 BA set 30 mins.



· Remove all ignition sources.
· Clean up all spills immediately.
· Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
· Control personal contact by using protective equipment.
· Use dry clean up procedures and avoid generating dust.
· Place in a suitable, labelled container for waste disposal.
· Drains for storage or use areas should have retention basins for pH adjustments and dilution of spills
before discharge or disposal of material.
· Check regularly for spills and leaks.


· Clear area of personnel and move upwind.
· Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
· Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus.
· Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course.
· Consider evacuation (or protect in place).
· Stop leak if safe to do so.
· Contain spill with sand, earth or vermiculite.
· Collect recoverable product into labelled containers for recycling.
· Neutralise/decontaminate residue (see Section 13 for specific agent).
· Collect solid residues and seal in labelled drums for disposal.
· Wash area and prevent runoff into drains.
· After clean up operations, decontaminate and launder all protective clothing and equipment before storing
and re- using.
· If contamination of drains or waterways occurs, advise emergency services.


From IERG (Canada/Australia)
Isolation Distance 25 metres
Downwind Protection Distance 250 metres
IERG Number 36


1 PROTECTIVE ACTION ZONE is defined as the area in which people are at risk of harmful exposure. This zone assumes that random changes in wind direction confines the
vapour plume to an area within 30 degrees on either side of the predominant wind direction, resulting in a crosswind protective action distance equal to the downwind
protective action distance.
2 PROTECTIVE ACTIONS should be initiated to the extent possible, beginning with those closest to the spill and working away from the site in the downwind direction.
Within the protective action zone a level of vapour concentration may exist resulting in nearly all unprotected persons becoming incapacitated and unable to take
protective action and/or incurring serious or irreversible health effects.
3 INITIAL ISOLATION ZONE is determined as an area, including upwind of the incident, within which a high probability of localised wind reversal may expose nearly all
persons without appropriate protection to life- threatening concentrations of the material.
4 SMALL SPILLS involve a leaking package of 200 litres (55 US gallons) or less, such as a drum (jerrican or box with inner containers). Larger packages leaking less
than 200 litres and compressed gas leaking from a small cylinder are also considered " small spills" .
LARGE SPILLS involve many small leaking packages or a leaking package of greater than 200 litres, such as a cargo tank, portable tank or a " one- tonne" compressed
gas cylinder.
5 Guide 154 is taken from the US DOT emergency response guide book.
6 IERG information is derived from CANUTEC - Transport Canada.


Personal Protective Equipment advice is contained in Section 8 of the MSDS.



· Avoid all personal contact, including inhalation.
· Wear protective clothing when risk of exposure occurs.
· Use in a well-ventilated area.
· WARNING: To avoid violent reaction, ALWAYS add material to water and NEVER water to material.
· Avoid smoking, naked lights or ignition sources.
· Avoid contact with incompatible materials.
· When handling, DO NOT eat, drink or smoke.
· Keep containers securely sealed when not in use.
· Avoid physical damage to containers.
· Always wash hands with soap and water after handling.
· Work clothes should be laundered separately. Launder contaminated clothing before re-use.
· Use good occupational work practice.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.
· Atmosphere should be regularly checked against established exposure standards to ensure safe working conditions are maintained.
Empty containers may contain residual dust which has the potential to accumulate following settling. Such dusts may explode in the presence of an appropriate ignition source.
· Do NOT cut, drill, grind or weld such containers.
· In addition ensure such activity is not performed near full, partially empty or empty containers without appropriate workplace safety authorisation or permit.


· DO NOT use aluminium or galvanised containers.
· Check regularly for spills and leaks.
· Glass container is suitable for laboratory quantities.
· Lined metal can, lined metal pail/ can.
· Plastic pail.
· Polyliner drum.
· Packing as recommended by manufacturer.
· Check all containers are clearly labelled and free from leaks.
For low viscosity materials
· Drums and jerricans must be of the non-removable head type.
· Where a can is to be used as an inner package, the can must have a screwed enclosure.
For materials with a viscosity of at least 2680 cSt. (23 deg. C) and solids (between 15 C deg. and 40 deg C.):
· Removable head packaging;
· Cans with friction closures and
· low pressure tubes and cartridges
may be used.
Where combination packages are used, and the inner packages are of glass, porcelain or stoneware, there must be sufficient inert cushioning material in contact with inner and outer packages unless the outer packaging is a close fitting moulded plastic box and the substances are not incompatible with the plastic.


· Reacts with mild steel, galvanised steel / zinc producing hydrogen gas which may form an explosive mixture with air.
· Avoid strong bases.
· Segregate from alkalies, oxidising agents and chemicals readily decomposed by acids, i.e. cyanides, sulfides, carbonates.


Chemical Name                   Container Type
Amines                          " Acetal (Delrinr)" , Bronze, " Buna N (Nitrile)" , " Cast iron" ,
                                CPVC, " Fluorocarbon (FKM)" , Hypalonr, Neoprene, NORYLr, Nylon,
                                Polycarbonate, PVC, Tygonr, Vitonr


· Plastic bag
· NOTE: Bags should be stacked, blocked, interlocked, and limited in height so that they are stable and secure against sliding or collapse.
· Store in original containers.
· Keep containers securely sealed.
· Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.
· Store away from incompatible materials and foodstuff containers.
· Protect containers against physical damage and check regularly for leaks.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.



+ + + + X +


+: May be stored together
O: May be stored together with specific preventions
X: Must not be stored together




• benzalkonium chloride: CAS:8001-54-5



■ Sensory irritants are chemicals that produce temporary and undesirable side- effects on the eyes, nose or throat. Historically occupational exposure standards for
these irritants have been based on observation of workers' responses to various airborne concentrations. Present day expectations require that nearly every
individual should be protected against even minor sensory irritation and exposure standards are established using uncertainty factors or safety factors of 5 to 10 or
more. On occasion animal no- observable- effect- levels (NOEL) are used to determine these limits where human results are unavailable. An additional approach,
typically used by the TLV committee (USA) in determining respiratory standards for this group of chemicals, has been to assign ceiling values (TLV C) to rapidly
acting irritants and to assign short- term exposure limits (TLV STELs) when the weight of evidence from irritation, bioaccumulation and other endpoints combine to
warrant such a limit. In contrast the MAK Commission (Germany) uses a five- category system based on intensive odour, local irritation, and elimination half- life.
However this system is being replaced to be consistent with the European Union (EU) Scientific Committee for Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL); this is more
closely allied to that of the USA.
OSHA (USA) concluded that exposure to sensory irritants can:
· cause inflammation
· cause increased susceptibility to other irritants and infectious agents
· lead to permanent injury or dysfunction
· permit greater absorption of hazardous substances and
· acclimate the worker to the irritant warning properties of these substances thus increasing the risk of overexposure.
It is the goal of the ACGIH (and other Agencies) to recommend TLVs (or their equivalent) for all substances for which there is evidence of health effects at airborne
concentrations encountered in the workplace.
At this time no TLV has been established, even though this material may produce adverse health effects (as evidenced in animal experiments or clinical experience).
Airborne concentrations must be maintained as low as is practically possible and occupational exposure must be kept to a minimum.
NOTE: The ACGIH occupational exposure standard for Particles Not Otherwise Specified (P.N.O.S) does NOT apply.




· Safety glasses with unperforated side shields may be used where continuous eye protection is desirable, as in laboratories; spectacles are not sufficient where
complete eye protection is needed such as when handling bulk- quantities, where there is a danger of splashing, or if the material may be under pressure
· Chemical goggles.whenever there is a danger of the material coming in contact with the eyes; goggles must be properly fitted
· Full face shield (20 cm, 8 in minimum) may be required for supplementary but never for primary protection of eyes; these afford face protection.
· Alternatively a gas mask may replace splash goggles and face shields.
· Contact lenses may pose a special hazard; soft contact lenses may absorb and concentrate irritants. A written policy document, describing the wearing of lens or
restrictions on use, should be created for each workplace or task. This should include a review of lens absorption and adsorption for the class of chemicals in use
and an account of injury experience. Medical and first- aid personnel should be trained in their removal and suitable equipment should be readily available. In the
event of chemical exposure, begin eye irrigation immediately and remove contact lens as soon as practicable. Lens should be removed at the first signs of eye redness
or irritation - lens should be removed in a clean environment only after workers have washed hands thoroughly. [CDC NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 59], [AS/NZS
1336 or national equivalent].


· Elbow length PVC gloves.
· The material may produce skin sensitisation in predisposed individuals. Care must be taken, when removing gloves and other protective equipment, to avoid all
possible skin contact.
· Contaminated leather items, such as shoes, belts and watch- bands should be removed and destroyed.
Suitability and durability of glove type is dependent on usage. Important factors in the selection of gloves include:
· frequency and duration of contact,
· chemical resistance of glove material,
· glove thickness and
· dexterity
Select gloves tested to a relevant standard (e.g. Europe EN 374, US F739, AS/NZS 2161.1 or national equivalent).
· When prolonged or frequently repeated contact may occur, a glove with a protection class of 5 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 240 minutes according to EN
374, AS/NZS 2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· When only brief contact is expected, a glove with a protection class of 3 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 60 minutes according to EN 374, AS/NZS
2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· Contaminated gloves should be replaced.
Gloves must only be worn on clean hands. After using gloves, hands should be washed and dried thoroughly. Application of a non- perfumed moisturiser is recommended.


· Overalls.
· PVC Apron.
· PVC protective suit may be required if exposure severe.
· Eyewash unit.
· Ensure there is ready access to a safety shower.


• Particulate dust filter. (AS/NZS 1716 & 1715, EN 143:2000 & 149:2001, ANSI Z88 or national equivalent)
• Acid vapour Type B cartridge/ canister. (AS/NZS 1716 & 1715, EN 143:2000 & 149:2001, ANSI Z88 or national equivalent)
· Respirators may be necessary when engineering and administrative controls do not adequately prevent exposures.
· The decision to use respiratory protection should be based on professional judgment that takes into account toxicity information, exposure measurement data, and
frequency and likelihood of the worker' s exposure - ensure users are not subject to high thermal loads which may result in heat stress or distress due to personal
protective equipment (powered, positive flow, full face apparatus may be an option).
· Published occupational exposure limits, where they exist, will assist in determining the adequacy of the selected respiratory . These may be government mandated or
vendor recommended.
· Certified respirators will be useful for protecting workers from inhalation of particulates when properly selected and fit tested as part of a complete respiratory
protection program.
· Use approved positive flow mask if significant quantities of dust becomes airborne.
· Try to avoid creating dust conditions.
The local concentration of material, quantity and conditions of use determine the type of personal protective equipment required. For further information consult
site specific CHEMWATCH data (if available), or your Occupational Health and Safety Advisor.


■ Engineering controls are used to remove a hazard or place a barrier between the worker and the hazard. Well- designed engineering controls can be highly effective
in protecting workers and will typically be independent of worker interactions to provide this high level of protection.
The basic types of engineering controls are:
Process controls which involve changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk.
Enclosure and/or isolation of emission source which keeps a selected hazard " physically" away from the worker and ventilation that strategically " adds" and "
removes" air in the work environment. Ventilation can remove or dilute an air contaminant if designed properly. The design of a ventilation system must match the
particular process and chemical or contaminant in use.
Employers may need to use multiple types of controls to prevent employee overexposure.
· Local exhaust ventilation is required where solids are handled as powders or crystals; even when particulates are relatively large, a certain proportion will be
powdered by mutual friction.
· Exhaust ventilation should be designed to prevent accumulation and recirculation of particulates in the workplace.
· If in spite of local exhaust an adverse concentration of the substance in air could occur, respiratory protection should be considered. Such protection might
consist of:
(a): particle dust respirators, if necessary, combined with an absorption cartridge;
(b): filter respirators with absorption cartridge or canister of the right type;
(c): fresh- air hoods or masks
· Build- up of electrostatic charge on the dust particle, may be prevented by bonding and grounding.
· Powder handling equipment such as dust collectors, dryers and mills may require additional protection measures such as explosion venting.
Air contaminants generated in the workplace possess varying " escape" velocities which, in turn, determine the " capture velocities" of fresh circulating air
required to efficiently remove the contaminant.
Type of Contaminant: Air Speed:
direct spray, spray painting in shallow booths, drum filling, conveyer loading, crusher dusts, gas discharge (active generation into zone of rapid air motion) 1-2.5 m/s (200-500 f/min.)
grinding, abrasive blasting, tumbling, high speed wheel generated dusts (released at high initial velocity into zone of very high rapid air motion). 2.5-10 m/s (500-2000 f/min.)
Within each range the appropriate value depends on:
Lower end of the range Upper end of the range
1: Room air currents minimal or favourable to capture 1: Disturbing room air currents
2: Contaminants of low toxicity or of nuisance value only 2: Contaminants of high toxicity
3: Intermittent, low production. 3: High production, heavy use
4: Large hood or large air mass in motion 4: Small hood-local control only
Simple theory shows that air velocity falls rapidly with distance away from the opening of a simple extraction pipe. Velocity generally decreases with the square of distance from the extraction point (in simple cases). Therefore the air speed at the extraction point should be adjusted, accordingly, after reference to distance from the contaminating source. The air velocity at the extraction fan, for example, should be a minimum of 4- 10 m/s (800- 2000 f/min) for extraction of crusher dusts generated 2 metres distant from the extraction point. Other mechanical considerations, producing performance deficits within the extraction apparatus, make it essential that theoretical air velocities are multiplied by factors of 10 or more when extraction systems are installed or used.



White or yellowish white amorphous powder. (Also sold in aqueous solution.) Possesses a faintly aromatic odour and a very bitter taste. Hygroscopic. Soluble in
alcohol and acetone. Slightly soluble in benzene.
Available as Technical and BP grades.


Mixes with water.


StateDIVIDED SOLIDMolecular WeightVariable.
Melting Range (ºC)Not available.ViscosityNot Applicable
Boiling Range (ºC)>100Solubility in water (g/L)Miscible
Flash Point (ºC)Not AvailablepH (1% solution)9.5-10.5
Decomposition Temp (ºC)>140pH (as supplied)Not available
Autoignition Temp (ºC)Not available.Vapour Pressure (kPa)Not available.
Upper Explosive Limit (%)Not AvailableSpecific Gravity (water=1)0.96 at 25 C
Lower Explosive Limit (%)Not AvailableRelative Vapour Density (air=1)Not Applicable
Volatile Component (%vol)89Evaporation RateNot available


StateDIVIDED SOLIDMolecular WeightVariable.
Melting Range (ºC)Not available.ViscosityNot Applicable
Boiling Range (ºC)>100Solubility in water (g/L)Miscible
Flash Point (ºC)Not AvailablepH (1% solution)9.5-10.5
Decomposition Temp (ºC)>140pH (as supplied)Not available
Autoignition Temp (ºC)Not available.Vapour Pressure (kPa)Not available.
Upper Explosive Limit (%)Not AvailableSpecific Gravity (water=1)0.96 at 25 C
Lower Explosive Limit (%)Not AvailableRelative Vapour Density (air=1)Not Applicable
Volatile Component (%vol)89Evaporation RateNot available



· Contact with alkaline material liberates heat.
· Presence of incompatible materials.
· Product is considered stable.
· Hazardous polymerisation will not occur.

For incompatible materials - refer to Section 7 - Handling and Storage.





■ Accidental ingestion of the material may be harmful; animal experiments indicate that ingestion of less than 150 gram may be fatal or may produce serious damage to
the health of the individual.
The material can produce chemical burns within the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract following ingestion.
Ingestion of acidic corrosives may produce burns around and in the mouth, the throat and oesophagus. Immediate pain and difficulties in swallowing and speaking may
also be evident. Swelling of the epiglottis may make it difficult to breathe which may result in suffocation. More severe exposure may result in vomiting blood and
thick mucus, shock, abnormally low blood pressure, fluctuating pulse, shallow respiration and clammy skin, inflammation of stomach wall, and rupture of oesophageal
tissue. Untreated shock may eventually result in kidney failure. Severe cases may result in perforation of the stomach and abdominal cavity with consequent
infection, rigidity and fever. There may be severe narrowing of the oesophageal or pyloric sphincters; this may occur immediately or after a delay of weeks to years.
There may be coma and convulsions, followed by death due to infection of the abdominal cavity, kidneys or lungs.
Concentrated solutions of many cationics may cause corrosive damage to mucous membranes and the oesophagus. Nausea and vomiting (sometimes bloody) may follow
ingestion. Serious exposures may produce an immediate burning sensation of the mouth, throat and abdomen with profuse salivation, ulceration of mucous membranes,
signs of circulatory shock (hypotension, laboured breathing, and cyanosis) and a feeling of apprehension, restlessness, confusion and weakness. Weak convulsive
movements may precede central nervous system depression. Erosion, ulceration, and petechial haemorrhage may occur through the small intestine with glottic, brain and
pulmonary oedema. Death may result from asphyxiation due to paralysis of the muscles of respiration or cardiovascular collapse. Fatal poisoning may arise even when
the only pathological signs are visceral congestion, swallowing, mild pulmonary oedema or varying signs of gastrointestinal irritation. Individuals who survive a
period of severe hypertension may develop kidney failure. Cloudy swelling, patchy necrosis and fatty infiltration in such visceral organs as the heart, liver and
kidneys shows at death.
Concentrated solutions of cationic surfactants may cause destruction of the tissue lining the mouth, throat and gullet, and may cause nausea and vomiting. In
sufficient quantity they may produce restlessness, confusion, low blood pressure, muscle weakness, collapse, convulsion, laboured breathing, blue discolouration of
the lips and coma. Death may occur in 1- 4 hours. Fatal dose is estimated at 1- 3 grams for certain cationics.


■ The material can produce chemical burns to the eye following direct contact. Vapours or mists may be extremely irritating.
If applied to the eyes, this material causes severe eye damage.
Direct eye contact with acid corrosives may produce pain, tears, sensitivity to light and burns. Mild burns of the epithelia generally recover rapidly and
completely. Severe burns produce long- lasting and possibly irreversible damage. The appearance of the burn may not be apparent for several weeks after the initial
contact. The cornea may ultimately become deeply opaque resulting in blindness.


■ Skin contact with the material may be harmful; systemic effects may result following absorption.
The material can produce chemical burns following direct contactwith the skin.
Skin contact with acidic corrosives may result in pain and burns; these may be deep with distinct edges and may heal slowly with the formation of scar tissue.
Open cuts, abraded or irritated skin should not be exposed to this material.
Entry into the blood- stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use
of the material and ensure that any external damage is suitably protected.


■ The material can cause respiratory irritation in some persons. The body' s response to such irritation can cause further lung damage.
Corrosive acids can cause irritation of the respiratory tract, with coughing, choking and mucous membrane damage. There may be dizziness, headache, nausea and
weakness. Swelling of the lungs can occur, either immediately or after a delay; symptoms of this include chest tightness, shortness of breath, frothy phlegm and
cyanosis. Lack of oxygen can cause death hours after onset.
Persons with impaired respiratory function, airway diseases and conditions such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis, may incur further disability if excessive
concentrations of particulate are inhaled.
If prior damage to the circulatory or nervous systems has occurred or if kidney damage has been sustained, proper screenings should be conducted on individuals who
may be exposed to further risk if handling and use of the material result
in excessive exposures.


■ Repeated or prolonged exposure to acids may result in the erosion of teeth, swelling and/or ulceration of mouth lining. Irritation of airways to lung, with cough,
and inflammation of lung tissue often occurs. Chronic exposure may inflame the skin or conjunctiva.
Long- term exposure to respiratory irritants may result in disease of the airways involving difficult breathing and related systemic problems.
Substance accumulation, in the human body, may occur and may cause some concern following repeated or long- term occupational exposure.
There is some evidence that inhaling this product is more likely to cause a sensitisation reaction in some persons compared to the general population.
There is limited evidence that, skin contact with this product is more likely to cause a sensitisation reaction in some persons compared to the general population.
Long term exposure to high dust concentrations may cause changes in lung function i.e. pneumoconiosis; caused by particles less than 0.5 micron penetrating and
remaining in the lung. Prime symptom is breathlessness; lung shadows show on X- ray.


■ unless otherwise specified data extracted from RTECS - Register of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
Oral (rat) LD50: 240 mg/kg Skin (human): 0.15 mg/72h Mild
Dermal (rabbit) LD50: 1560 mg/kg Eye (human): 0.05 mg SEVERE
Eye (rabbit): 1mg/24h SEVERE
■ Asthma- like symptoms may continue for months or even years after exposure to the material ceases. This may be due to a non- allergenic condition known as reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) which can occur following exposure to high levels of highly irritating compound. Key criteria for the diagnosis of RADS include the absence of preceding respiratory disease, in a non- atopic individual, with abrupt onset of persistent asthma- like symptoms within minutes to hours of a documented exposure to the irritant. A reversible airflow pattern, on spirometry, with the presence of moderate to severe bronchial hyperreactivity on methacholine challenge testing and the lack of minimal lymphocytic inflammation, without eosinophilia, have also been included in the criteria for diagnosis of RADS. RADS (or asthma) following an irritating inhalation is an infrequent disorder with rates related to the concentration of and duration of exposure to the irritating substance. Industrial bronchitis, on the other hand, is a disorder that occurs as result of exposure due to high concentrations of irritating substance (often particulate in nature) and is completely reversible after exposure ceases. The disorder is characterised by dyspnea, cough and mucus production. Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides are in the list of dangerous substances of council directive, classified as “harmful in contact with skin and on ingestion”, and “corrosive and very toxic to aquatic organisms”. It can cause dose dependent skin and eye irritation with possible deterioration of vision, possible sensitization in those with pre- existing eczema. It does not cause cancer, genetic defect, foetal or developmental abnormality.



benzalkonium chlorideAustralia Final Report on Hazard Classification of Common Skin SensitisersRecommended for Hazard Classification (R43)No



Marine PollutantYes
Fish LC50 (96hr.) (mg/l): 
■ Very toxic to aquatic organisms. Do NOT allow product to come in contact with surface waters or to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. Do not contaminate water when cleaning equipment or disposing of equipment wash- waters. Wastes resulting from use of the product must be disposed of on site or at approved waste sites. For alkyldimethylbenzylammonium salts (ADMBAC): Environmental fate: The knowledge about the biodegradation pathways of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium cationic salts is very scarce. A qualitative analysis of the metabolites that were formed in pilot activated sludge plants showed that benzoate, acetate, and tetradecyldimethylamine were formed during degradation of C14 ADMBAC. The average degradation of C14 ADMBAC in this study was 73% of the initial concentration during 36 days. The identified metabolites indicate that ADMBAC is degraded via a cleavage of the bond linking the benzene group to the alkyldimethylammonium. ADMBAC salts (C8- C14) undergo extensive ultimate biodegradation occur, and biodegradation is rapid. The concentration of quaternary ammonium salts did not decrease, or only decreased slightly, in an anaerobic digester. Ecotoxicity: ADMBAC are very toxic to aquatic organisms. Some of the available data on the acute aquatic toxicity (EC/LC50) are below 1 mg/l (e.g. for the green algae Chlorella pyrenidosa), but EC/LC50 values between 1 and 10 mg/l are also observed. Environmental and Health Assessment of Substances in Household Detergents and Cosmetic Detergent Products, Environment Project, 615, 2001. Torben Madsen et al: Miljoministeriet (Danish Environmental Protection Agency) For quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs): QACs are white, crystalline powders. Low molecular weight QACs are very soluble in water, but slightly or not at all soluble in solvents such as ether, petrol and benzene. As the molecular weight and chain lengths increases, the solubility in polar solvents (e.g. water) decreases and the solubility in non- polar solvents increases. <a name=RichViewCheckpoint0></a>Environmental fate A major part of the QACs is discharged into wastewater and removed in the biological processes of sewage treatment plant. A 90% reduction of the QACs in the water phase of sludge has been reported and alkyl di- / trimethyl ammonium and alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium compounds seem almost completely degraded in sewage sludge. However, the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability of QACs is not well investigated. Only sparse data are available concerning stability, solubility and biodegradability. In general, it seems that the biodegradability decreases with increasing numbers of alkyl chains: R(CH3)3N+ > R2(CH3)2N+ > R3(CH3)N+. Within each category the biodegradability seems inversely proportional to the alkyl chain length. Heterocyclic QACs are less degradable than the non- cyclic. Investigations have shown that bioaccumulation of considerable dimensions will probably not take place. Ecotoxicity: Quaternary ammonium compounds and their polymers may be highly toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms. The toxicity of the quaternary ammoniums is known to be greatly reduced in the environment because of preferential binding to dissolved organics in surface water. Although inorganic chloride ions are not normally considered toxic they can exist in effluents at acutely toxic levels (chloride >3000 mg/l). The resulting salinity can exceed the tolerances of most freshwater organisms. Inorganic chlorine eventually finds its way into the aqueous compartment and as such is bioavailable. Incidental exposure to inorganic chloride may occur in occupational settings where chemicals management policies are improperly applied. The toxicity of chloride salts depends on the counter- ion (cation) present; that of chloride itself is unknown. Chloride toxicity has not been observed in humans except in the special case of impaired sodium chloride metabolism, e.g. in congestive heart failure. Healthy individuals can tolerate the intake of large quantities of chloride provided that there is a concomitant intake of fresh water. Although excessive intake of drinking- water containing sodium chloride at concentrations above 2.5 g/litre has been reported to produce hypertension, this effect is believed to be related to the sodium ion concentration. Chloride concentrations in excess of about 250 mg/litre can give rise to detectable taste in water, but the threshold depends upon the associated cations. Consumers can, however, become accustomed to concentrations in excess of 250 mg/litre. No health- based guideline value is proposed for chloride in drinking- water. In humans, 88% of chloride is extracellular and contributes to the osmotic activity of body fluids. The electrolyte balance in the body is maintained by adjusting total dietary intake and by excretion via the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. Chloride is almost completely absorbed in normal individuals, mostly from the proximal half of the small intestine. Normal fluid loss amounts to about 1.5- 2 liters/day, together with about 4 g of chloride per day. Most (90 - 95%) is excreted in the urine, with minor amounts in faeces (4- 8%) and sweat (2%). Chloride increases the electrical conductivity of water and thus increases its corrosivity. In metal pipes, chloride reacts with metal ions to form soluble salts thus increasing levels of metals in drinking- water. In lead pipes, a protective oxide layer is built up, but chloride enhances galvanic corrosion. It can also increase the rate of pitting corrosion of metal pipes. Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water courses. DO NOT discharge into sewer or waterways. The material is classified as an ecotoxin* because the Daphnia EC50 (48 hours) is less than or equal to 0.1 mg/l * Classification of Substances as Ecotoxic (Dangerous to the Environment) Appendix 8, Table 1 Compiler' s Guide for the Preparation of International Chemical Safety Cards: 1993 Commission of the European Communities. Ecotoxicity: Fish LC50 (96 h); bluegill sunfish 2.35 ppm; rainbow trout 7.8 ppm (Calgon); Danio rerio 0.31 mg/l; striped bass (fingerling) 1.5 mg/l; striped bass (larvae) 0.5 mg/l Daphnia magna EC50 (48 h): 0.02 mg/l Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h): 0.07 mg/l Not expected to bioaccumulate Bacteria EC50 (15 m): phytobacterium phosphoreum 0.6 mg/l (Microtox test at 15 C)


IngredientPersistence: Water/SoilPersistence: AirBioaccumulationMobility
benzalkonium chlorideNo Data AvailableNo Data AvailableLOW



· Containers may still present a chemical hazard/ danger when empty.
· Return to supplier for reuse/ recycling if possible.
· If container can not be cleaned sufficiently well to ensure that residuals do not remain or if the container cannot be used to store the same product, then puncture containers, to prevent re-use, and bury at an authorised landfill.
· Where possible retain label warnings and MSDS and observe all notices pertaining to the product.
Legislation addressing waste disposal requirements may differ by country, state and/ or territory. Each user must refer to laws operating in their area. In some areas, certain wastes must be tracked.
A Hierarchy of Controls seems to be common - the user should investigate:
· Reduction
· Reuse
· Recycling
· Disposal (if all else fails)
This material may be recycled if unused, or if it has not been contaminated so as to make it unsuitable for its intended use. Shelf life considerations should also be applied in making decisions of this type. Note that properties of a material may change in use, and recycling or reuse may not always be appropriate.
· DO NOT allow wash water from cleaning or process equipment to enter drains.
· It may be necessary to collect all wash water for treatment before disposal.
· In all cases disposal to sewer may be subject to local laws and regulations and these should be considered first.
· Where in doubt contact the responsible authority.
Recycle wherever possible.
· Consult manufacturer for recycling options or consult local or regional waste management authority for disposal if no suitable treatment or disposal facility can be identified.
· Treat and neutralise at an approved treatment plant. Treatment should involve: Mixing or slurrying in water; Neutralisation with soda-lime or soda-ash followed by: burial in a land-fill specifically licenced to accept chemical and / or pharmaceutical wastes or Incineration in a licenced apparatus (after admixture with suitable combustible material)
· Decontaminate empty containers with 5% aqueous sodium hydroxide or soda ash, followed by water. Observe all label safeguards until containers are cleaned and destroyed.


Labels Required: CORROSIVE


2X (ADG7)


Class or Division: 8 Subsidiary Risk: None
UN No.: 3261 Packing Group: II
Special Provision: 274 Limited Quantity: 1 kg
Portable Tanks & Bulk Containers - Instruction: T3 Portable Tanks & Bulk Containers - Special Provision: TP33
Packagings & IBCs - Packing Instruction: B2, B4 Packagings & IBCs - Special Packing Provision: P002, IBC08
Name and Description: CORROSIVE SOLID, ACIDIC, ORGANIC, N.O.S. (contains benzalkonium chloride)

Land Transport UNDG:

Class or division: 8 Subsidiary risk: None
UN No.: 3261 UN packing group: II
Shipping Name:CORROSIVE SOLID, ACIDIC, ORGANIC, N.O.S. (contains benzalkonium chloride)

Air Transport IATA:

UN/ID Number: 3261 Packing Group: II
Special provisions: A3

Maritime Transport IMDG:

IMDG Class: 8 IMDG Subrisk: None
UN Number: 3261 Packing Group: II
EMS Number: F-A,S-B Special provisions: 274
Limited Quantities: 1 kg Marine Pollutant: Yes
Shipping Name: CORROSIVE SOLID, ACIDIC, ORGANIC, N.O.S.(contains benzalkonium chloride)




benzalkonium chloride (CAS: 8001-54-5) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia Final Report on Hazard Classification of Common Skin Sensitisers","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix E (Part 2)"



Paul Milward-Bason
17 Grandview Parade
Moolap 3221
Victoria Australia



The following table displays the version number of and date on which each section was last changed.

Section Name        Version  Date             Section Name        Version  Date             Section Name        Version  Date
Advice to Doctor    5        15- Oct- 2007    Storage (storage    5        15- Oct- 2007    Instability         5        15- Oct- 2007
                                              incompatibility)                              Condition
First Aid           7        26- Dec- 2008    Storage (storage    5        15- Oct- 2007    Acute Health (eye)  6        28- Oct- 2007
(inhaled)                                     requirement)
First Aid (skin)    5        15- Oct- 2007    Storage (suitable   5        15- Oct- 2007    Acute Health        7        26- Dec- 2008
                                              container)                                    (inhaled)
First Aid           5        15- Oct- 2007    Engineering         4        13- Jul- 2007    Acute Health        7        26- Dec- 2008
(swallowed)                                   Control                                       (skin)
Fire Fighter (fire  5        15- Oct- 2007    Exposure Standard   5        15- Oct- 2007    Acute Health        5        15- Oct- 2007
fighting)                                                                                   (swallowed)
Fire Fighter (fire  5        15- Oct- 2007    Personal            5        15- Oct- 2007    Chronic Health      7        26- Dec- 2008
incompatibility)                              Protection (eye)
Fire Fighter        7        26- Dec- 2008    Personal            5        15- Oct- 2007    Toxicity and        6        28- Oct- 2007
(fire/explosion                               Protection                                    Irritation (Other)
hazard)                                       (hands/feet)
Spills (major)      5        15- Oct- 2007    Personal            7        26- Dec- 2008    Environmental       7        26- Dec- 2008
                                              Protection (other)
Spills (minor)      7        26- Dec- 2008    Appearance          6        28- Oct- 2007    Disposal            5        15- Oct- 2007
Handling Procedure  5        15- Oct- 2007    Physical            5        15- Oct- 2007    Transport           5        15- Oct- 2007


■ Classification of the preparation and its individual components has drawn on official and authoritative sources as well as independent review by the Chemwatch Classification committee using available literature references.
A list of reference resources used to assist the committee may be found at:


■ The (M)SDS is a Hazard Communication tool and should be used to assist in the Risk Assessment. Many factors determine whether the reported Hazards are Risks in the workplace or other settings. Risks may be determined by reference to Exposures Scenarios. Scale of use, frequency of use and current or available engineering controls must be considered.



This document is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, review or
criticism, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written
permission from CHEMWATCH. TEL (+61 3) 9572 4700.


Issue Date: 26-Dec-2008

Print Date: 17-Feb-2012



This is the end of the MSDS.