Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet (REVIEW)

Issue Date: 9-Oct-2008



Version No:8







■ The use of a quantity of material in an unventilated or confined space may result in increased exposure and an irritating atmosphere developing. Before starting consider control of exposure by mechanical ventilation.
Operators should be trained in procedures for safe use of this material.
Reagent, pH adjustment. Detergent, removing stains, bleaching, calico printing, extracting plant colours and alkaloids; manufacture of ammonium salts and aniline salts.
Refrigerant gas; manufacture of fertilizers and nitric acid. Metal treatment and extraction of metals from ores. Processing crude oil, Manufacture of ammonium salts, dyes, pharmaceuticals, explosives, rayon and polymers.


Company: Sigma- Aldrich Pty Ltd Company: Deltrex Chemicals Pty Ltd
Address: Address:
12 Anella Avenue PO Box 118
Castle Hill Newport
NSW, 2154 VIC, 3015
Australia Australia
Telephone: +61 2 9841 0555
Telephone: 1800 800 097
Emergency Tel: +44 8701906777
Emergency Tel: 1800 448 456
Fax: +61 2 9841 0500
Website: www.sigma-





Flammability 0
Toxicity 3
Body Contact 3
Reactivity 0
Chronic 2
SCALE: Min/Nil=0 Low=1 Moderate=2 High=3 Extreme=4


■ In use, may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture. • Keep locked up.
■ Toxic by inhalation. • Do not breathe gas/ fumes/ vapour/ spray.
■ Causes burns. • Avoid contact with skin.
■ Risk of serious damage to eyes. • Avoid contact with eyes.
■ Very toxic to aquatic organisms. • Wear suitable protective clothing.
■ Cumulative effects may result following exposure*. • In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
* (limited evidence). • Wear suitable gloves.
• Wear eye/ face protection.
• Use only in well ventilated areas.
• Keep container in a well ventilated place.
• Do not empty into drains.
• To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use water.
• Keep container tightly closed.
• This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way.
• Keep away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs.
• Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
• In case of contact with eyes, rinse with plenty of water and contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre.
• In case of accident or if you feel unwell, IMMEDIATELY contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre (show label if possible).
• Use appropriate container to avoid environment contamination.
• Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/ safety data sheets.
• This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
• In case of accident by inhalation: remove casualty to fresh air and keep at rest.



ammonia 1336-21-6 10-35
water 7732-18-5 65-90



· For advice, contact a Poisons Information Centre or a doctor at once.
· Urgent hospital treatment is likely to be needed.
· If swallowed do NOT induce vomiting.
· If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain open airway and prevent aspiration.
· Observe the patient carefully.
· Never give liquid to a person showing signs of being sleepy or with reduced awareness; i.e. becoming unconscious.
· Give water to rinse out mouth, then provide liquid slowly and as much as casualty can comfortably drink.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.


■ If this product comes in contact with the eyes:
· Immediately hold eyelids apart and flush the eye continuously with running water.
· Ensure complete irrigation of the eye by keeping eyelids apart and away from eye and moving the eyelids by occasionally lifting the upper and lower lids.
· Continue flushing until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre or a doctor, or for at least 15 minutes.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.
· Removal of contact lenses after an eye injury should only be undertaken by skilled personnel.


■ If skin or hair contact occurs:
· Immediately flush body and clothes with large amounts of water, using safety shower if available.
· Quickly remove all contaminated clothing, including footwear.
· Wash skin and hair with running water. Continue flushing with water until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor.


· If fumes or combustion products are inhaled remove from contaminated area.
· Lay patient down. Keep warm and rested.
· Prostheses such as false teeth, which may block airway, should be removed, where possible, prior to initiating first aid procedures.
· Apply artificial respiration if not breathing, preferably with a demand valve resuscitator, bag-valve mask device, or pocket mask as trained. Perform CPR if necessary.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor, without delay.


■ Treat symptomatically.
For acute or short- term repeated exposures to highly alkaline materials:
· Respiratory stress is uncommon but present occasionally because of soft tissue edema.
· Unless endotracheal intubation can be accomplished under direct vision, cricothyroidotomy or tracheotomy may be necessary.
· Oxygen is given as indicated.
· The presence of shock suggests perforation and mandates an intravenous line and fluid administration.
· Damage due to alkaline corrosives occurs by liquefaction necrosis whereby the saponification of fats and solubilisation of proteins allow deep penetration into the
Alkalis continue to cause damage after exposure.
· Milk and water are the preferred diluents
No more than 2 glasses of water should be given to an adult.
· Neutralising agents should never be given since exothermic heat reaction may compound injury.
* Catharsis and emesis are absolutely contra- indicated.
* Activated charcoal does not absorb alkali.
* Gastric lavage should not be used.
Supportive care involves the following:
· Withhold oral feedings initially.
· If endoscopy confirms transmucosal injury start steroids only within the first 48 hours.
· Carefully evaluate the amount of tissue necrosis before assessing the need for surgical intervention.
· Patients should be instructed to seek medical attention whenever they develop difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia).
· Injury should be irrigated for 20- 30 minutes.
Eye injuries require saline. [Ellenhorn & Barceloux: Medical Toxicology].
for irritant gas exposures:
· the presence of the agent when it is inhaled is evanescent (of short duration) and therefore, cannot be washed away or otherwise removed
· arterial blood gases are of primary importance to aid in determination of the extent of damage. Never discharge a patient significantly exposed to an irritant gas
without obtaining an arterial blood sample.
· supportive measures include suctioning (intubation may be required), volume cycle ventilator support (positive and expiratory pressure (PEEP), steroids and
antibiotics, after a culture is taken
· If the eyes are involved, an ophthalmologic consultation is recommended
Occupational Medicine: Third Edition; Zenz, Dickerson, Horvath 1994 Pub: Mosby.
For acute or short term repeated exposures to ammonia and its solutions:
· Mild to moderate inhalation exposures produce headache, cough, bronchospasm, nausea, vomiting, pharyngeal and retrosternal pain and conjunctivitis. Severe
inhalation produces laryngospasm, signs of upper airway obstruction (stridor, hoarseness, difficulty in speaking) and, in excessively, high doses, pulmonary oedema.
· Warm humidified air may soothe bronchial irritation.
· Test all patients with conjunctival irritation for corneal abrasion (fluorescein stain, slit lamp exam)
· Dyspneic patients should receive a chest X- ray and arterial blood gases to detect pulmonary oedema.



■ The product contains a substantial proportion of water, therefore there are no restrictions on the type of extinguishing media which may be used. Choice of
extinguishing media should take into account surrounding areas.
Though the material is non- combustible, evaporation of water from the mixture, caused by the heat of nearby fire, may produce floating layers of combustible
In such an event consider:
· foam.
· dry chemical powder.
· carbon dioxide.


· Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
· Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus.
· Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course.
· Use fire fighting procedures suitable for surrounding area.
· Do not approach containers suspected to be hot.
· Cool fire exposed containers with water spray from a protected location.
· If safe to do so, remove containers from path of fire.
· Equipment should be thoroughly decontaminated after use.


■ WARNING: In use may form flammable/ explosive vapour- air mixtures.
Combustion products include: nitrogen oxides (NOx), other pyrolysis products typical of burning organic material.
Contains low boiling substance: Closed containers may rupture due to pressure buildup under fire conditions.
May emit corrosive fumes.


■ None known.



Personal Protective Equipment

Breathing apparatus.
Chemical splash suit.



· Clean up all spills immediately.
· Avoid breathing vapours and contact with skin and eyes.
· Control personal contact by using protective equipment.
· Contain and absorb spill with sand, earth, inert material or vermiculite.
· Wipe up.
· Place in a suitable, labelled container for waste disposal.


■ Chemical Class: bases
For release onto land: recommended sorbents listed in order of priority.
cross-linked polymer - particulate 1 shovel shovel R,W,SS
cross-linked polymer - pillow 1 throw pitchfork R, DGC, RT
sorbent clay - particulate 2 shovel shovel R, I, P
foamed glass - pillow 2 throw pitchfork R, P, DGC, RT
expanded minerals - particulate 3 shovel shovel R, I, W, P, DGC
foamed glass - particulate 4 shovel shovel R, W, P, DGC,
cross-linked polymer -particulate 1 blower skiploader R,W, SS
sorbent clay - particulate 2 blower skiploader R, I, P
expanded mineral - particulate 3 blower skiploader R, I,W, P, DGC
cross-linked polymer - pillow 3 throw skiploader R, DGC, RT
foamed glass - particulate 4 blower skiploader R, W, P, DGC
foamed glass - pillow 4 throw skiploader R, P, DGC., RT
Legend DGC: Not effective where ground cover is dense R; Not reusable I: Not incinerable P: Effectiveness reduced when rainy RT:Not effective where terrain is rugged SS: Not for use within environmentally sensitive sites W: Effectiveness reduced when windy Reference: Sorbents for Liquid Hazardous Substance Cleanup and Control; R.W Melvold et al: Pollution Technology Review No. 150: Noyes Data Corporation 1988. · Clear area of personnel and move upwind. · Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard. · Wear full body protective clothing with breathing apparatus. · Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course. · Stop leak if safe to do so. · Contain spill with sand, earth or vermiculite. · Collect recoverable product into labelled containers for recycling. · Neutralise/decontaminate residue (see Section 13 for specific agent). · Collect solid residues and seal in labelled drums for disposal. · Wash area and prevent runoff into drains. · After clean up operations, decontaminate and launder all protective clothing and equipment before storing and re- using. · If contamination of drains or waterways occurs, advise emergency services.


From IERG (Canada/Australia)
Isolation Distance 25 metres
Downwind Protection Distance 250 metres
IERG Number 37


1 PROTECTIVE ACTION ZONE is defined as the area in which people are at risk of harmful exposure. This zone assumes that random changes in wind direction confines the
vapour plume to an area within 30 degrees on either side of the predominant wind direction, resulting in a crosswind protective action distance equal to the downwind
protective action distance.
2 PROTECTIVE ACTIONS should be initiated to the extent possible, beginning with those closest to the spill and working away from the site in the downwind direction.
Within the protective action zone a level of vapour concentration may exist resulting in nearly all unprotected persons becoming incapacitated and unable to take
protective action and/or incurring serious or irreversible health effects.
3 INITIAL ISOLATION ZONE is determined as an area, including upwind of the incident, within which a high probability of localised wind reversal may expose nearly all
persons without appropriate protection to life- threatening concentrations of the material.
4 SMALL SPILLS involve a leaking package of 200 litres (55 US gallons) or less, such as a drum (jerrican or box with inner containers). Larger packages leaking less
than 200 litres and compressed gas leaking from a small cylinder are also considered " small spills" .
LARGE SPILLS involve many small leaking packages or a leaking package of greater than 200 litres, such as a cargo tank, portable tank or a " one- tonne" compressed
gas cylinder.
5 Guide 154 is taken from the US DOT emergency response guide book.
6 IERG information is derived from CANUTEC - Transport Canada.


The maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed that nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to one hour WITHOUT experiencing or developing
life- threatening health effects is:
ammonia 750ppm
irreversible or other serious effects or symptoms which could impair an individual' s ability to take protective action is:
ammonia 150ppm
other than mild, transient adverse effects without perceiving a clearly defined odour is:
ammonia 25ppm
American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA)
Ingredients considered according to the following cutoffs
Very Toxic (T+) >= 0.1% Toxic (T) >= 3.0%
R50 >= 0.25% Corrosive (C) >= 5.0%
R51 >= 2.5%
else >= 10%
where percentage is percentage of ingredient found in the mixture


Personal Protective Equipment advice is contained in Section 8 of the MSDS.



■ Contains low boiling substance:
Storage in sealed containers may result in pressure buildup causing violent rupture of containers not rated appropriately.
· Check for bulging containers.
· Vent periodically
· Always release caps or seals slowly to ensure slow dissipation of vapours.
· DO NOT allow clothing wet with material to stay in contact with skin.
· Avoid all personal contact, including inhalation.
· Wear protective clothing when risk of exposure occurs.
· Use in a well-ventilated area.
· Avoid contact with moisture.
· Avoid contact with incompatible materials.
· When handling, DO NOT eat, drink or smoke.
· Keep containers securely sealed when not in use.
· Avoid physical damage to containers.
· Always wash hands with soap and water after handling.
· Work clothes should be laundered separately. Launder contaminated clothing before re-use.
· Use good occupational work practice.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.
· Atmosphere should be regularly checked against established exposure standards to ensure safe working conditions are maintained.


· Lined metal can, lined metal pail/ can.
· Plastic pail.
· Polyliner drum.
· Packing as recommended by manufacturer.
· Check all containers are clearly labelled and free from leaks.
For low viscosity materials
· Drums and jerricans must be of the non-removable head type.
· Where a can is to be used as an inner package, the can must have a screwed enclosure.
For materials with a viscosity of at least 2680 cSt. (23 deg. C) and solids (between 15 C deg. and 40 deg C.):
· Removable head packaging;
· Cans with friction closures and
· low pressure tubes and cartridges
may be used.
Where combination packages are used, and the inner packages are of glass, porcelain or stoneware, there must be sufficient inert cushioning material in contact with inner and outer packages unless the outer packaging is a close fitting moulded plastic box and the substances are not incompatible with the plastic.


■ For ammonia:
· Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with oxygen, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, iodine, mercury, platinum and silver.
· Fire and/or explosion may follow contact with acetaldehyde, acrolein, aldehydes, alkylene oxides, amides, antimony, boron, boron halides, bromine chloride, chloric acid, chlorine monoxide, o-chloronitrobenzene, 1-chloro-2,4-nitrobenzene, chlorosilane, chloromelamine, chromium trioxide, chromyl chloride, epichlorohydrin, hexachloromelamine, hypochlorites (do NOT mix ammonia with liquid household bleach), isocyanates, nitrogen tetraoxide, nitrogen trichloride, nitryl chloride, organic anhydrides, phosphorous trioxide, potassium ferricyanide, potassium mercuric cyanide, silver chloride, stibine, tellurium halides, tellurium hydropentachloride, tetramethylammonium amide, trimethylammonium amide, trioxygen difluoride, vinyl acetate.
· Shock-, temperature-, and pressure sensitive compounds are formed with antimony, chlorine, germanium compounds, halogens, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, mercury oxide, silver compounds (azides, chlorides, nitrates, oxides).
· Vapours or solutions of ammonia are corrosive to copper, copper alloys, galvanised metal and aluminium. Mixtures of ammonia and air lying within the explosive limits can occur above aqueous solutions of varying strengths.
· Avoid contact with sodium hydroxide, iron and cadmium.
· Several incidents involving sudden "boiling" (occasionally violent) of a concentrated solution (d, 0.880, 35 wt %.) have occurred when screw-capped winchesters are opened. These are attributable to supersaturation of the solution with gas caused by increases in temperature subsequent to preparation and bottling. The effect is particularly marked with winchesters filled in winter and opened in summer.
· Ammonia polymerises violently with ethylene oxide.
· Ammonia attacks some coatings, plastics and rubber.
· Attacks copper, bronze, brass, aluminium, steel and their alloys.
· Avoid strong acids, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides and chloroformates.
· Avoid contact with copper, aluminium and their alloys.


Chemical Name                   Container Type
Ammonium Hydroxide              " ABS plastic" , " Acetal (Delrinr)" , Brass, Bronze, " Buna N
                                (Nitrile)" , " Carbon Steel" , " Cast iron" , Copper, " Fluorocarbon
                                (FKM)" , Hypalonr, Hytrelr, " Natural rubber" , Polycarbonate,
                                Polyurethane, Vitonr


· Store in original containers.
· Keep containers securely sealed.
· Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.
· Store away from incompatible materials and foodstuff containers.
· Protect containers against physical damage and check regularly for leaks.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.
· DO NOT store near acids, or oxidising agents.
· No smoking, naked lights, heat or ignition sources.




+: May be stored together
O: May be stored together with specific preventions
X: Must not be stored together




SourceMaterialTWA ppmTWA mg/m³STEL ppmSTEL mg/m³
Australia Exposure Standardsammonia (Ammonia)25173524
The following materials had no OELs on our records
• water: CAS:7732-18-5



Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
ammonia 19 300
Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
ammonia 19 300



■ for exposure to ammonia gas/ vapours:
Odour Threshold Value: Variously reported as 0.019 ppm and 55 ppm; AIHA Value 16.7 ppm (detection)
NOTE: Detector tubes for ammonia, measuring in excess of 1 ppm, are commercially available.
The TLV- TWA is thought to be protective against irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract and minimise discomfort among workers that are not inured to its
effects and systemic damage. Acclimatised persons are able to tolerate prolonged exposures of up to 100 ppm without symptoms. Marked irritation has been seen in
persons exposed to ammonia concentrations between 50 and 100 ppm only when the exposures involved sudden concentration peaks which do not permit short- term
acclimatisation. The detoxification capacity of the liver is significant since the amount of ammonia formed endogenously in the intestines markedly exceeds that from
external sources.
Human exposure effects, at vapour concentrations of about:
Concentration (ppm) Possible Effects
5 minimal irritation
9-50 nasal dryness, olfactory fatigue and moderate irritation
125-137 definite nose, throat and chest irritation
140 slight eye irritation
150 laryngeal spasm
500 30 minute exposures may produce cyclic hypernea, increased blood pressure and pulse rate, and upper respiratory tract irritation which may persist for 24 hours
700 immediate eye irritation
1,500-10,000 dyspnea, convulsive coughing, chest pain, respiratory spasm, pink frothy sputum, rapid asphyxia and delayed pulmonary oedema which may be fatal. Other effects include runny nose, swelling of the lips, restlessness, headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, glottal oedema, pharyngitis, tracheitis, and speech difficulties. Bronchopneumonia, asphyxiation due to spasms, inflammation, and oedema of the larynx, may be fatal. Residual effects include hoarseness, productive cough, and decreased respiratory function
>2,500 severe eye irritation, with swelling of the eyelids, lachrymation, blepharospasm, palpebral oedema, increased intraocular pressure, oval semi- dilated, fixed pupils, corneal ulceration (often severe) and temporary blindness. Depending on duration of exposure, there may be destruction of the epithelium, corneal and lenticular opacification, and iritis accompanied by hypopyon or haemorrhage and possible loss of pigment from the posterior layer of the iris. Less severe damage is often resolved. In the case of severe damage, symptoms may be delayed; late complications including persistent oedema, vascularisation and corneal scarring, permanent opacity, acute angle glaucoma, staphyloma, cataract, and atrophy of the retina, iris, and symblepharon. Long-term exposure to sub-acute concentrations or single exposures to high concentrations may produce chronic airway dysfunction, alveolar disease, bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis, emphysema and anxiety neuroses
Odour Safety Factor(OSF) OSF=3.8 (AMMONIA). WATER: ■ No exposure limits set by NOHSC or ACGIH.




· Chemical goggles.
· Full face shield may be required for supplementary but never for primary protection of eyes
· Contact lenses may pose a special hazard; soft contact lenses may absorb and concentrate irritants. A written policy document, describing the wearing of lens or
restrictions on use, should be created for each workplace or task. This should include a review of lens absorption and adsorption for the class of chemicals in use
and an account of injury experience. Medical and first- aid personnel should be trained in their removal and suitable equipment should be readily available. In the
event of chemical exposure, begin eye irrigation immediately and remove contact lens as soon as practicable. Lens should be removed at the first signs of eye redness
or irritation - lens should be removed in a clean environment only after workers have washed hands thoroughly. [CDC NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 59], [AS/NZS
1336 or national equivalent].


· Wear chemical protective gloves, eg. PVC.
· Wear safety footwear or safety gumboots, eg. Rubber.
· When handling corrosive liquids, wear trousers or overalls outside of boots, to avoid spills entering boots.
Suitability and durability of glove type is dependent on usage. Important factors in the selection of gloves include:
· frequency and duration of contact,
· chemical resistance of glove material,
· glove thickness and
· dexterity
Select gloves tested to a relevant standard (e.g. Europe EN 374, US F739, AS/NZS 2161.1 or national equivalent).
· When prolonged or frequently repeated contact may occur, a glove with a protection class of 5 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 240 minutes according to EN
374, AS/NZS 2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· When only brief contact is expected, a glove with a protection class of 3 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 60 minutes according to EN 374, AS/NZS
2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· Contaminated gloves should be replaced.
Gloves must only be worn on clean hands. After using gloves, hands should be washed and dried thoroughly. Application of a non- perfumed moisturiser is recommended.


· Overalls.
· PVC Apron.
· PVC protective suit may be required if exposure severe.
· Eyewash unit.
· Ensure there is ready access to a safety shower.


■ Glove selection is based on a modified presentation of the:
" Forsberg Clothing Performance Index" .
The effect(s) of the following substance(s) are taken into account in the
computer- generated selection: ammonia
■ Protective Material CPI *.
____________________________________________ ■ * CPI - Chemwatch Performance Index A: Best Selection B: Satisfactory; may degrade after 4 hours continuous immersion C: Poor to Dangerous Choice for other than short term immersion NOTE: As a series of factors will influence the actual performance of the glove, a final selection must be based on detailed observation. - * Where the glove is to be used on a short term, casual or infrequent basis, factors such as " feel" or convenience (e.g. disposability), may dictate a choice of gloves which might otherwise be unsuitable following long- term or frequent use. A qualified practitioner should be consulted.


•Type K Filter of sufficient capacity. (AS/NZS 1716 & 1715, EN 143:2000 & 149:2001, ANSI Z88 or national equivalent)
■ Selection of the Class and Type of respirator will depend upon the level of breathing zone contaminant and the chemical nature of the contaminant. Protection
Factors (defined as the ratio of contaminant outside and inside the mask) may also be important.
Required minimum protection factor Maximum gas/vapour concentration present in air p.p.m. (by volume) Half-face Respirator Full-Face Respirator
up to 10 1000 k-AUS / Class1 -
up to 50 1000 - k-AUS / Class 1
up to 50 5000 Airline * -
up to 100 5000 - k-2
up to 100 10000 - k-3
100+ Airline**
* - Continuous Flow ** - Continuous- flow or positive pressure demand A(All classes) = Organic vapours, B AUS or B1 = Acid gasses, B2 = Acid gas or hydrogen cyanide(HCN), B3 = Acid gas or hydrogen cyanide(HCN), E = Sulfur dioxide(SO2), G = Agricultural chemicals, K = Ammonia(NH3), Hg = Mercury, NO = Oxides of nitrogen, MB = Methyl bromide, AX = Low boiling point organic compounds(below 65 degC). The local concentration of material, quantity and conditions of use determine the type of personal protective equipment required. For further information consult site specific CHEMWATCH data (if available), or your Occupational Health and Safety Advisor.


■ Engineering controls are used to remove a hazard or place a barrier between the worker and the hazard. Well- designed engineering controls can be highly effective
in protecting workers and will typically be independent of worker interactions to provide this high level of protection.
The basic types of engineering controls are:
Process controls which involve changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk.
Enclosure and/or isolation of emission source which keeps a selected hazard " physically" away from the worker and ventilation that strategically " adds" and "
removes" air in the work environment. Ventilation can remove or dilute an air contaminant if designed properly. The design of a ventilation system must match the
particular process and chemical or contaminant in use.
Employers may need to use multiple types of controls to prevent employee overexposure.
Local exhaust ventilation usually required. If risk of overexposure exists, wear approved respirator. Correct fit is essential to obtain adequate protection.
Supplied- air type respirator may be required in special circumstances. Correct fit is essential to ensure adequate protection.
An approved self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) may be required in some situations.
Provide adequate ventilation in warehouse or closed storage area. Air contaminants generated in the workplace possess varying " escape" velocities which, in turn,
determine the " capture velocities" of fresh circulating air required to effectively remove the contaminant.
Type of Contaminant: Air Speed:
solvent, vapours, degreasing etc., evaporating from tank (in still air). 0.25-0.5 m/s (50-100 f/min.)
aerosols, fumes from pouring operations, intermittent container filling, low speed conveyer transfers, welding, spray drift, plating acid fumes, pickling (released at low velocity into zone of active generation) 0.5-1 m/s (100-200 f/min.)
direct spray, spray painting in shallow booths, drum filling, conveyer loading, crusher dusts, gas discharge (active generation into zone of rapid air motion) 1-2.5 m/s (200-500 f/min.)
grinding, abrasive blasting, tumbling, high speed wheel generated dusts (released at high initial velocity into zone of very high rapid air motion). 2.5-10 m/s (500-2000 f/min.)
Within each range the appropriate value depends on:
Lower end of the range Upper end of the range
1: Room air currents minimal or favourable to capture 1: Disturbing room air currents
2: Contaminants of low toxicity or of nuisance value only. 2: Contaminants of high toxicity
3: Intermittent, low production. 3: High production, heavy use
4: Large hood or large air mass in motion 4: Small hood-local control only
Simple theory shows that air velocity falls rapidly with distance away from the opening of a simple extraction pipe. Velocity generally decreases with the square of distance from the extraction point (in simple cases). Therefore the air speed at the extraction point should be adjusted, accordingly, after reference to distance from the contaminating source. The air velocity at the extraction fan, for example, should be a minimum of 1- 2 m/s (200- 400 f/min) for extraction of solvents generated in a tank 2 meters distant from the extraction point. Other mechanical considerations, producing performance deficits within the extraction apparatus, make it essential that theoretical air velocities are multiplied by factors of 10 or more when extraction systems are installed or used. CARE: Explosive vapour air mixtures may be present on opening vessels which have contained liquid ammonia. Fatalities have occurred.



Colourless alkaline liquid with strong pungent odour; mixes with water. Immiscible with most organic solvents. Ammonia gas is evolved on heating.
Flammability Colour Physical State Odour Miscibility
with water
- Clear Liquid AmmoniaLike Miscible


Mixes with water.
Toxic or noxious vapours/gas.


StateLiquidMolecular Weight35.06
Melting Range (ºC)Not available.ViscosityNot Available
Boiling Range (ºC)Not available.Solubility in water (g/L)Miscible
Flash Point (ºC)Not applicablepH (1% solution)11.7
Decomposition Temp (ºC)Not available.pH (as supplied)Not available
Autoignition Temp (ºC)630Vapour Pressure (kPa)66.7 @ 27 C
Upper Explosive Limit (%)25 ammonia gasSpecific Gravity (water=1)0.9 (nominal)
Lower Explosive Limit (%)16 ammonia gasRelative Vapour Density (air=1)0.6 approx.
Volatile Component (%vol)35-44Evaporation RateNot available
Gas groupIIA


StateLiquidMolecular Weight35.06
Melting Range (ºC)Not available.ViscosityNot Available
Boiling Range (ºC)Not available.Solubility in water (g/L)Miscible
Flash Point (ºC)Not applicablepH (1% solution)11.7
Decomposition Temp (ºC)Not available.pH (as supplied)Not available
Autoignition Temp (ºC)630Vapour Pressure (kPa)66.7 @ 27 C
Upper Explosive Limit (%)25 ammonia gasSpecific Gravity (water=1)0.9 (nominal)
Lower Explosive Limit (%)16 ammonia gasRelative Vapour Density (air=1)0.6 approx.
Volatile Component (%vol)35-44Evaporation RateNot available
Gas groupIIA



· Presence of incompatible materials.
· Product is considered stable.
· Hazardous polymerisation will not occur.

For incompatible materials - refer to Section 7 - Handling and Storage.





■ The material can produce chemical burns within the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract following ingestion.
The material is not thought to produce adverse health effects following ingestion (as classified by EC Directives using animal models). Nevertheless, adverse
systemic effects have been produced following exposure of animals by at least one other route and good hygiene practice requires that exposure be kept to a minimum.
Large doses of ammonia or injected ammonium salts may produce diarrhoea and may be sufficiently absorbed to produce increased production of urine and systemic
poisoning. Symptoms include weakening of facial muscle, tremor, anxiety, reduced muscle and limb control.
Ingestion of alkaline corrosives may produce burns around the mouth, ulcerations and swellings of the mucous membranes, profuse saliva production, with an inability
to speak or swallow. Both the oesophagus and stomach may experience burning pain; vomiting and diarrhoea may follow. Epiglottal swelling may result in respiratory
distress and asphyxia; shock can occur. Narrowing of the oesophagus, stomach or stomach valve may occur immediately or after a long delay (weeks to years). Severe
exposure can perforate the oesophagus or stomach leading to infections of the chest or abdominal cavity, with low chest pain, abdominal stiffness and fever. All of
the above can cause death.


■ The material can produce chemical burns to the eye following direct contact. Vapours or mists may be extremely irritating.
If applied to the eyes, this material causes severe eye damage.
The vapour when concentrated has pronounced eye irritation effects and this gives some warning of high vapour concentrations. If eye irritation occurs seek to reduce
exposure with available control measures, or evacuate area.
Direct eye contact with corrosive bases can cause pain and burns. There may be swelling, epithelium destruction, clouding of the cornea and inflammation of the iris.
Mild cases often resolve; severe cases can be prolonged with complications such as persistent swelling, scarring, permanent cloudiness, bulging of the eye,
cataracts, eyelids glued to the eyeball and blindness.


■ The material can produce chemical burns following direct contactwith the skin.
Skin contact is not thought to produce harmful health effects (as classified under EC Directives using animal models). Systemic harm, however, has been identified
following exposure of animals by at least one other route and the material may still produce health damage following entry through wounds, lesions or abrasions. Good
hygiene practice requires that exposure be kept to a minimum and that suitable gloves be used in an occupational setting.
Mild skin reaction is seen with contact of the vapour of this material on moist skin. High concentrations or direct contact with solutions produces severe pain, a
stinging sensation, burns and blisters and possible brown stains. Death could result from extensive burning. Vapour exposure may rarely, produce an itchy rash.
Entry into the blood- stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use
of the material and ensure that any external damage is suitably protected.
Skin contact with alkaline corrosives may produce severe pain and burns; brownish stains may develop. The corroded area may be soft, gelatinous and necrotic; tissue
destruction may be deep.


■ The highly irritant properties of ammonia vapour result as the gas dissolves in mucous fluids and forms irritant, even corrosive solutions.
Inhalation of the ammonia fumes causes coughing, vomiting, reddening of lips, mouth, nose, throat and conjunctiva while higher concentrations can cause temporary
blindness, restlessness, tightness in the chest, pulmonary oedema (lung damage), weak pulse and cyanosis.
Inhalation of high concentrations of vapour may cause breathing difficulty, tightness in chest, pulmonary oedema and lung damage. Brief exposure to high
concentrations > 5000 ppm may cause death due to asphyxiation (suffocation) or fluid in the lungs.
Prolonged or regular minor exposure to the vapour may cause persistent irritation of the eyes, nose and upper respiratory tract. Massive ammonia exposures may
produce chronic airway hyperactivity and asthma with associated pulmonary function changes. The average nasal retention of ammonia by human subjects was found to be
Inhalation of aerosols (mists, fumes), generated by the material during the course of normal handling, may produce toxic effects; these may be fatal.
If exposure to highly concentrated vapour atmosphere is prolonged this may lead to narcosis, unconsciousness, even coma and unless resuscitated - death.
The use of a quantity of material in an unventilated or confined space may result in increased exposure and an irritating atmosphere developing. Before starting
consider control of exposure by mechanical ventilation.


■ Repeated or prolonged exposure to corrosives may result in the erosion of teeth, inflammatory and ulcerative changes in the mouth and necrosis (rarely) of the jaw.
Bronchial irritation, with cough, and frequent attacks of bronchial pneumonia may ensue. Gastrointestinal disturbances may also occur. Chronic exposures may result
in dermatitis and/or conjunctivitis.
Substance accumulation, in the human body, may occur and may cause some concern following repeated or long- term occupational exposure.
Prolonged or repeated minor exposure to ammonia gas/vapour may cause long- term irritation to the eyes, nose and upper respiratory tract. Repeated exposure or
prolonged contact may produce dermatitis, and conjunctivitis.
Other effects may include ulcerative changes to the mouth and bronchial and gastrointestinal disturbances. Adaptation to usually irritating concentrations may result
in tolerance. In animals, repeated exposures to sub- lethal levels produces adverse effects on the respiratory tract, liver, kidneys and spleen. Exposure at 675 ppm
for several weeks produced eye irritation in dogs and rabbits; corneal opacity, covering between a quarter to one half of the total surface area, was evident in


■ unless otherwise specified data extracted from RTECS - Register of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
Oral (rat) LD50: 350 mg/kg Eye (rabbit): 0.25 mg SEVERE
Oral (human) LDLo: 43 mg/kg Eye (rabbit): 1 mg/30s SEVERE
Inhalation (human) LCLo: 5000 ppm/5m
Inhalation (human) TCLo: 20 ppm
Inhalation (rat) LC50: 2000 ppm/4h
Unreported (man) LDLo: 132 mg/kg
Oral (Human) LD: 43 mg/kg
Inhalation (Human) LC: 5000 ppm/4h
Inhalation (Human) TCLo: 408 ppm/4h
Subcutaneous (Mouse) LD: 160 mg/kg
Intravenous (Mouse) LD50: 91 mg/kg
Oral (Cat) LD: 750 mg/kg
Subcutaneous (Rabbit) LD: 200 mg/kg
Intravenous (Rabbit) LD: 10 mg/kg
■ The material may produce severe irritation to the eye causing pronounced inflammation. Repeated or prolonged exposure to irritants may produce conjunctivitis. Asthma- like symptoms may continue for months or even years after exposure to the material ceases. This may be due to a non- allergenic condition known as reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) which can occur following exposure to high levels of highly irritating compound. Key criteria for the diagnosis of RADS include the absence of preceding respiratory disease, in a non- atopic individual, with abrupt onset of persistent asthma- like symptoms within minutes to hours of a documented exposure to the irritant. A reversible airflow pattern, on spirometry, with the presence of moderate to severe bronchial hyperreactivity on methacholine challenge testing and the lack of minimal lymphocytic inflammation, without eosinophilia, have also been included in the criteria for diagnosis of RADS. RADS (or asthma) following an irritating inhalation is an infrequent disorder with rates related to the concentration of and duration of exposure to the irritating substance. Industrial bronchitis, on the other hand, is a disorder that occurs as result of exposure due to high concentrations of irritating substance (often particulate in nature) and is completely reversible after exposure ceases. The disorder is characterised by dyspnea, cough and mucus production. WATER: ■ No significant acute toxicological data identified in literature search.




Marine PollutantYes
Fish LC50 (96hr.) (mg/l): 
■ Very toxic to aquatic organisms. Do NOT allow product to come in contact with surface waters or to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. Do not contaminate water when cleaning equipment or disposing of equipment wash- waters. Wastes resulting from use of the product must be disposed of on site or at approved waste sites. In air ammonia is persistent whilst, in water, it biodegrades rapidly to nitrate, producing a high oxygen demand. Ammonia is strongly adsorbed to soil. Ammonia is non- persistent in water (half- life 2 days) and is moderately toxic to fish under normal temperature and pH conditions. Ammonia is harmful to aquatic life at low concentrations but does not concentrate in the food chain. Ammonium ions may be toxic to fish at 0.3 mg/l Drinking Water Standards: 0.5 mg/l (UK max.) 1.5 mg/l (WHO Levels) Soil Guidelines: none available. Air Quality Standards: none available. Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water courses. DO NOT discharge into sewer or waterways. Toxicity Fish: LC50(96)0.25- 8.2mg/l Toxicity invertebrate: LC50(96)1.1- 1.53mg/l Bioaccumulation: some Nitrif. inhib.: some processes Abiotic: oxid WATER:


IngredientPersistence: Water/SoilPersistence: AirBioaccumulationMobility
ammoniaLOWNo Data AvailableLOWHIGH



Name /     EHS  TRN  A1a  A1b  A1   A2   B1   B2   C1   C2   C3   D1   D2   D3   E1   E2   E3
Cas No /
_________  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___
Ammonia    91   114  0         0    R    3    2    1    (2)  3    3    3              DE   3
s and
28% or
less) /
 21- 6 /

EHS=EHS Number (EHS=GESAMP Working Group on the Evaluation of the Hazards of Harmful Substances Carried by Ships) NRT=Net Register Tonnage, A1a=Bioaccumulation log Pow, A1b=Bioaccumulation BCF, A1=Bioaccumulation, A2=Biodegradation, B1=Acuteaquatic toxicity LC/ECIC50 (mg/l), B2=Chronic aquatic toxicity NOEC (mg/l), C1=Acute mammalian oral toxicity LD50 (mg/kg), C2=Acutemammalian dermal toxicity LD50 (mg/kg), C3=Acute mammalian inhalation toxicity LC50 (mg/kg), D1=Skin irritation & corrosion, D2=Eye irritation& corrosion, D3=Long-term health effects, E1=Tainting, E2=Physical effects on wildlife & benthic habitats, E3=Interference with coastal amenities,
For column A2: R=Readily biodegradable, NR=Not readily biodegradable.
For column D3: C=Carcinogen, M=Mutagenic, R=Reprotoxic, S=Sensitising, A=Aspiration hazard, T=Target organ systemic toxicity, L=Lunginjury, N=Neurotoxic, I=Immunotoxic.
For column E1: NT=Not tainting (tested), T=Tainting test positive.
For column E2: Fp=Persistent floater, F=Floater, S=Sinking substances.
The numerical scales start from 0 (no hazard), while higher numbers reflect increasing hazard.
(GESAMP/EHS Composite List of Hazard Profiles - Hazard evaluation of substances transported by ships)


· Containers may still present a chemical hazard/ danger when empty.
· Return to supplier for reuse/ recycling if possible.
· If container can not be cleaned sufficiently well to ensure that residuals do not remain or if the container cannot be used to store the same product, then puncture containers, to prevent re-use, and bury at an authorised landfill.
· Where possible retain label warnings and MSDS and observe all notices pertaining to the product.
Legislation addressing waste disposal requirements may differ by country, state and/ or territory. Each user must refer to laws operating in their area. In some areas, certain wastes must be tracked.
A Hierarchy of Controls seems to be common - the user should investigate:
· Reduction
· Reuse
· Recycling
· Disposal (if all else fails)
This material may be recycled if unused, or if it has not been contaminated so as to make it unsuitable for its intended use. If it has been contaminated, it may be possible to reclaim the product by filtration, distillation or some other means. Shelf life considerations should also be applied in making decisions of this type. Note that properties of a material may change in use, and recycling or reuse may not always be appropriate.
· DO NOT allow wash water from cleaning or process equipment to enter drains.
· It may be necessary to collect all wash water for treatment before disposal.
· In all cases disposal to sewer may be subject to local laws and regulations and these should be considered first.
· Where in doubt contact the responsible authority.
· Recycle wherever possible.
· Consult manufacturer for recycling options or consult local or regional waste management authority for disposal if no suitable treatment or disposal facility can be identified.
· Treat and neutralise at an approved treatment plant.
· Treatment should involve: Neutralisation with suitable dilute acid followed by: burial in a land-fill specifically licenced to accept chemical and / or pharmaceutical wastes or Incineration in a licenced apparatus (after admixture with suitable combustible material).
· Decontaminate empty containers. Observe all label safeguards until containers are cleaned and destroyed.


Labels Required: CORROSIVE


2R (ADG7)


Class or Division: 8 Subsidiary Risk: None
UN No.: 2672 Packing Group: III
Special Provision: None Limited Quantity: 5 L
Portable Tanks & Bulk Containers - Instruction: T7 Portable Tanks & Bulk Containers - Special Provision: TP1
Packagings & IBCs - Packing Instruction: B11 Packagings & IBCs - Special Packing Provision: P001, IBC03, LP01
Name and Description: AMMONIA SOLUTION, relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 at 15 ºC in water, with more than 10% but not more than 35% ammonia

Land Transport UNDG:

Class or division: 8 Subsidiary risk: None
UN No.: 2672 UN packing group: III
Shipping Name:AMMONIA SOLUTION, relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 at 15 ºC in water, with more than 10% but not more than 35% ammonia

Air Transport IATA:

UN/ID Number: 2672 Packing Group: III
Special provisions: A64

Maritime Transport IMDG:

IMDG Class: 8 IMDG Subrisk: None
UN Number: 2672 Packing Group: III
EMS Number: F-A,S-B Special provisions: None
Limited Quantities: 5 L Marine Pollutant: Yes
Shipping Name: AMMONIA SOLUTION relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 at 15ºC in water, with more than 10% but not more than 35% am


GESAMP hazard profiles for this material can be found in section 12 of the MSDS.




ammonia (CAS: 1336-21-6) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","CODEX General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) - Additives Permitted for Use in Food in General, Unless Otherwise Specified, in Accordance with GMP","IMO MARPOL 73/78 (Annex II) - List of Noxious Liquid Substances Carried in Bulk","International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) - High Production Volume List","International Fragrance Association (IFRA) Survey: Transparency List"

Regulations for ingredients

water (CAS: 7732-18-5) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","IMO IBC Code Chapter 18: List of products to which the Code does not apply","International Fragrance Association (IFRA) Survey: Transparency List"



Paul Milward-Bason
17 Grandview Parade
Moolap 3221
Victoria Australia



The following table displays the version number of and date on which each section was last changed.

Section Name        Version  Date             Section Name        Version  Date             Section Name        Version  Date
Advice to Doctor    5        12- Aug- 2006    Storage (storage    5        12- Aug- 2006    Acute Health        5        12- Aug- 2006
                                              requirement)                                  (skin)
First Aid (skin)    5        12- Aug- 2006    Storage (suitable   5        12- Aug- 2006    Acute Health        5        12- Aug- 2006
                                              container)                                    (swallowed)
First Aid           5        12- Aug- 2006    Engineering         5        12- Aug- 2006    Chronic Health      5        12- Aug- 2006
(swallowed)                                   Control
Fire Fighter (fire  5        12- Aug- 2006    Personal            5        12- Aug- 2006    Toxicity and        5        12- Aug- 2006
fighting)                                     Protection                                    Irritation (Other)
Fire Fighter        5        12- Aug- 2006    Appearance          5        12- Aug- 2006    Toxicity and        5        12- Aug- 2006
(fire/explosion                                                                             Irritation
hazard)                                                                                     (Toxicity Figure)
Spills (major)      5        12- Aug- 2006    Physical            5        12- Aug- 2006    Environmental       5        12- Aug- 2006
Handling Procedure  5        12- Aug- 2006    Acute Health (eye)  5        12- Aug- 2006    Disposal            5        12- Aug- 2006
Storage (storage    5        12- Aug- 2006    Acute Health        5        12- Aug- 2006
incompatibility)                              (inhaled)


■ Classification of the preparation and its individual components has drawn on official and authoritative sources as well as independent review by the Chemwatch Classification committee using available literature references.
A list of reference resources used to assist the committee may be found at:


■ The (M)SDS is a Hazard Communication tool and should be used to assist in the Risk Assessment. Many factors determine whether the reported Hazards are Risks in the workplace or other settings. Risks may be determined by reference to Exposures Scenarios. Scale of use, frequency of use and current or available engineering controls must be considered.



This document is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, review or
criticism, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written
permission from CHEMWATCH. TEL (+61 3) 9572 4700.


Issue Date: 9-Oct-2008

Print Date: 17-Feb-2012



This is the end of the MSDS.