Chemwatch Independent Material Safety Data Sheet

Issue Date: 13-Nov-2009



Version No:6





Hydrated grades as Alum are high volume commercial chemicals. Sizing paper, lakes, alums, dyeing mordant, agent in fire fighting foams, cloth fireproofing, white leather tannage, pH control in paper industry, waterproofing agent for concrete, deodorizer and decolouriser in petroleum refining, sewage precipitating agent and for water purification. Medical use: Astringent, treatment of jellyfish stings.


Company: Aluminates Morwell Pty Ltd Company: Bisley & Company Pty Ltd
Address: Address:
345 Plummer Street PO Box 695
Port Melbourne Chatswood
VIC, 3207 NSW, 2057
Australia Australia
Telephone: +61 3 9646 2115 Telephone: +61 2 8905 4200
Fax: +61 3 9646 3785 Fax: +61 2 8905 4238
Website: Email:
Company: Bisley & Company Pty Ltd Company: Consolidated Alloys
Address: Address:
Level 12, Tower B, Zenith Centre, 821 Pacific 32 Industrial Avenue
Highway Thomastown
Chatswood VIC, 3074
NSW, 2067 Australia
Australia Telephone: +61 3 9359 5811
Telephone: +61 2 8905 4200 Fax: +61 3 9359 4076
Emergency Tel: 1800 039 008
Fax: 02 8905 4238





Flammability 0
Toxicity 0
Body Contact 3
Reactivity 1
Chronic 2
SCALE: Min/Nil=0 Low=1 Moderate=2 High=3 Extreme=4


■ Irritating to respiratory system and skin. • Do not breathe dust.
■ Risk of serious damage to eyes. • Avoid contact with skin.
■ Possible risk of irreversible effects. • Avoid contact with eyes.
■ Cumulative effects may result following exposure*. • Wear suitable protective clothing.
* (limited evidence). • Wear suitable gloves.
• Wear eye/ face protection.
• To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use water and detergent.
• Keep away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs.
• In case of contact with eyes, rinse with plenty of water and contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre.
• If swallowed, IMMEDIATELY contact Doctor or Poisons Information Centre (show this container or label).



aluminium sulfate 10043-01-3 > 99
hydrolysis produces
sulfuric acid 7664-93-9



· Immediately give a glass of water.
· First aid is not generally required. If in doubt, contact a Poisons Information Centre or a doctor.


■ If this product comes in contact with the eyes:
· Immediately hold eyelids apart and flush the eye continuously with running water.
· Ensure complete irrigation of the eye by keeping eyelids apart and away from eye and moving the eyelids by occasionally lifting the upper and lower lids.
· Continue flushing until advised to stop by the Poisons Information Centre or a doctor, or for at least 15 minutes.
· Transport to hospital or doctor without delay.
· Removal of contact lenses after an eye injury should only be undertaken by skilled personnel.


■ If skin contact occurs:
· Immediately remove all contaminated clothing, including footwear.
· Flush skin and hair with running water (and soap if available).
· Seek medical attention in event of irritation.


· If fumes or combustion products are inhaled remove from contaminated area.
· Lay patient down. Keep warm and rested.
· Prostheses such as false teeth, which may block airway, should be removed, where possible, prior to initiating first aid procedures.
· Apply artificial respiration if not breathing, preferably with a demand valve resuscitator, bag-valve mask device, or pocket mask as trained. Perform CPR if necessary.
· Transport to hospital, or doctor, without delay.


■ Treat symptomatically.
· Manifestation of aluminium toxicity include hypercalcaemia, anaemia, Vitamin D refractory osteodystrophy and a progressive encephalopathy (mixed dysarthria-
apraxia of speech, asterixis, tremulousness, myoclonus, dementia, focal seizures). Bone pain, pathological fractures and proximal myopathy can occur.
· Symptoms usually develop insidiously over months to years (in chronic renal failure patients) unless dietary aluminium loads are excessive.
· Serum aluminium levels above 60 ug/ml indicate increased absorption. Potential toxicity occurs above 100 ug/ml and clinical symptoms are present when levels exceed
200 ug/ml.
· Deferoxamine has been used to treat dialysis encephalopathy and osteomalacia. CaNa2EDTA is less effective in chelating aluminium. [Ellenhorn and Barceloux: Medical



· There is no restriction on the type of extinguisher which may be used.
· Use extinguishing media suitable for surrounding area.


· Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
· Wear breathing apparatus plus protective gloves for fire only.
· Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water courses.
· Use fire fighting procedures suitable for surrounding area.
· DO NOT approach containers suspected to be hot.
· Cool fire exposed containers with water spray from a protected location.
· If safe to do so, remove containers from path of fire.
· Equipment should be thoroughly decontaminated after use.


· Non combustible.
· Not considered a significant fire risk, however containers may burn.
Decomposition may produce toxic fumes of: sulfur oxides (SOx), metal oxides.
May emit poisonous fumes.
May emit corrosive fumes.


■ None known.



Personal Protective Equipment

Gloves, boots (chemical resistant).



· Clean up all spills immediately.
· Avoid breathing dust and contact with skin and eyes.
· Wear protective clothing, gloves, safety glasses and dust respirator.
· Use dry clean up procedures and avoid generating dust.
· Sweep up, shovel up or
· Vacuum up (consider explosion- proof machines designed to be grounded during storage and use).
· Place spilled material in clean, dry, sealable, labelled container.


■ Moderate hazard.
· CAUTION: Advise personnel in area.
· Alert Emergency Services and tell them location and nature of hazard.
· Control personal contact by wearing protective clothing.
· Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water courses.
· Recover product wherever possible.
· IF DRY: Use dry clean up procedures and avoid generating dust. Collect residues and place in sealed plastic
bags or other containers for disposal. IF WET: Vacuum/shovel up and place in labelled containers for
· ALWAYS: Wash area down with large amounts of water and prevent runoff into drains.
· If contamination of drains or waterways occurs, advise Emergency Services.


Personal Protective Equipment advice is contained in Section 8 of the MSDS.



· Avoid all personal contact, including inhalation.
· Wear protective clothing when risk of exposure occurs.
· Use in a well-ventilated area.
· Prevent concentration in hollows and sumps.
· DO NOT enter confined spaces until atmosphere has been checked.
· DO NOT allow material to contact humans, exposed food or food utensils.
· Avoid contact with incompatible materials.
· When handling, DO NOT eat, drink or smoke.
· Keep containers securely sealed when not in use.
· Avoid physical damage to containers.
· Always wash hands with soap and water after handling.
· Work clothes should be laundered separately. Launder contaminated clothing before re-use.
· Use good occupational work practice.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.
· Atmosphere should be regularly checked against established exposure standards to ensure safe working conditions are maintained.


· DO NOT use aluminium, galvanised or tin-plated containers.
· Polyethylene or polypropylene container.
· Check all containers are clearly labelled and free from leaks.


· Metals and their oxides or salts may react violently with chlorine trifluoride and bromine trifluoride.
· These trifluorides are hypergolic oxidisers. They ignites on contact (without external source of heat or ignition) with recognised fuels - contact with these materials, following an ambient or slightly elevated temperature, is often violent and may produce ignition.
· The state of subdivision may affect the results.
· In presence of moisture, the material is corrosive to aluminium, zinc and tin producing highly flammable hydrogen gas.
· Segregate from alcohol, water.
· NOTE: May develop pressure in containers; open carefully. Vent periodically.
Aluminium sulfate
· forms sulfuric acid in water
· reacts violently with bases and many other materials
· dry material is weakly corrosive to carbon steel; aqueous solution attacks aluminium and other metals forming hydrogen gas.


Chemical Name                   Container Type
Aluminum Sulfate                " Acetal (Delrinr)" , Aluminum, " Carbon Steel" , " Carpenter 20" , "
                                Cast iron" , Copper, Polyurethane


· Store in original containers.
· Keep containers securely sealed.
· Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.
· Store away from incompatible materials and foodstuff containers.
· Protect containers against physical damage and check regularly for leaks.
· Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.



+ X + X X +


+: May be stored together
O: May be stored together with specific preventions
X: Must not be stored together




SourceMaterialTWA mg/m³STEL mg/m³
Australia Exposure Standardsaluminium sulfate (Aluminium, soluble salts (as Al))2
Australia Exposure Standardssulfuric acid (Sulphuric acid)13



Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
sulfuric acid|1830 15
Material Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm)
sulfuric acid|1830 15



■ NOTE: Detector tubes for sulfuric acid, measuring in excess of 1 mg/m3, are commercially available.
Based on controlled inhalation studies the TLV- TWA is thought to be protective against the significant risk of pulmonary irritation and incorporates a margin of
safety so as to prevent injury to the skin and teeth seen in battery workers acclimatised to workplace concentrations of 16 mg/m3. Experimental evidence in normal
unacclimated humans indicates the recognition, by all subjects, of odour, taste or irritation at 3 mg/m3 or 5 mg/m3. All subjects reported these levels to be
objectionable but to varying degrees.
■ The TLV is based on the exposures to aluminium chloride and the amount of hydrolysed acid and the corresponding acid TLV to provide the same degree of freedom from
irritation. Workers chronically exposed to aluminium dusts and fumes have developed severe pulmonary reactions including fibrosis, emphysema and pneumothorax. A much
rarer encephalopathy has also been described.
■ Sensory irritants are chemicals that produce temporary and undesirable side- effects on the eyes, nose or throat. Historically occupational exposure standards for
these irritants have been based on observation of workers' responses to various airborne concentrations. Present day expectations require that nearly every
individual should be protected against even minor sensory irritation and exposure standards are established using uncertainty factors or safety factors of 5 to 10 or
more. On occasion animal no- observable- effect- levels (NOEL) are used to determine these limits where human results are unavailable. An additional approach,
typically used by the TLV committee (USA) in determining respiratory standards for this group of chemicals, has been to assign ceiling values (TLV C) to rapidly
acting irritants and to assign short- term exposure limits (TLV STELs) when the weight of evidence from irritation, bioaccumulation and other endpoints combine to
warrant such a limit. In contrast the MAK Commission (Germany) uses a five- category system based on intensive odour, local irritation, and elimination half- life.
However this system is being replaced to be consistent with the European Union (EU) Scientific Committee for Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL); this is more
closely allied to that of the USA.
OSHA (USA) concluded that exposure to sensory irritants can:
· cause inflammation
· cause increased susceptibility to other irritants and infectious agents
· lead to permanent injury or dysfunction
· permit greater absorption of hazardous substances and
· acclimate the worker to the irritant warning properties of these substances thus increasing the risk of overexposure.




· Safety glasses with side shields.
· Chemical goggles.
· Contact lenses may pose a special hazard; soft contact lenses may absorb and concentrate irritants. A written policy document, describing the wearing of lens or
restrictions on use, should be created for each workplace or task. This should include a review of lens absorption and adsorption for the class of chemicals in use
and an account of injury experience. Medical and first- aid personnel should be trained in their removal and suitable equipment should be readily available. In the
event of chemical exposure, begin eye irrigation immediately and remove contact lens as soon as practicable. Lens should be removed at the first signs of eye redness
or irritation - lens should be removed in a clean environment only after workers have washed hands thoroughly. [CDC NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 59], [AS/NZS
1336 or national equivalent].


■ Suitability and durability of glove type is dependent on usage. Important factors in the selection of gloves include:
· frequency and duration of contact,
· chemical resistance of glove material,
· glove thickness and
· dexterity
Select gloves tested to a relevant standard (e.g. Europe EN 374, US F739, AS/NZS 2161.1 or national equivalent).
· When prolonged or frequently repeated contact may occur, a glove with a protection class of 5 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 240 minutes according to EN
374, AS/NZS 2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· When only brief contact is expected, a glove with a protection class of 3 or higher (breakthrough time greater than 60 minutes according to EN 374, AS/NZS
2161.10.1 or national equivalent) is recommended.
· Contaminated gloves should be replaced.
Gloves must only be worn on clean hands. After using gloves, hands should be washed and dried thoroughly. Application of a non- perfumed moisturiser is recommended.
Experience indicates that the following polymers are suitable as glove materials for protection against undissolved, dry solids, where abrasive particles are not
· polychloroprene
· nitrile rubber
· butyl rubber
· fluorocaoutchouc
· polyvinyl chloride
Gloves should be examined for wear and/ or degradation constantly.


· Overalls.
· P.V.C. apron.
· Barrier cream.
· Skin cleansing cream.
· Eye wash unit.


•Type E- P Filter of sufficient capacity. (AS/NZS 1716 & 1715, EN 143:2000 & 149:2001, ANSI Z88 or national equivalent)
· Respirators may be necessary when engineering and administrative controls do not adequately prevent exposures.
· The decision to use respiratory protection should be based on professional judgment that takes into account toxicity information, exposure measurement data, and
frequency and likelihood of the worker' s exposure - ensure users are not subject to high thermal loads which may result in heat stress or distress due to personal
protective equipment (powered, positive flow, full face apparatus may be an option).
· Published occupational exposure limits, where they exist, will assist in determining the adequacy of the selected respiratory . These may be government mandated or
vendor recommended.
· Certified respirators will be useful for protecting workers from inhalation of particulates when properly selected and fit tested as part of a complete respiratory
protection program.
· Use approved positive flow mask if significant quantities of dust becomes airborne.
· Try to avoid creating dust conditions.
The local concentration of material, quantity and conditions of use determine the type of personal protective equipment required. For further information consult
site specific CHEMWATCH data (if available), or your Occupational Health and Safety Advisor.


■ Engineering controls are used to remove a hazard or place a barrier between the worker and the hazard. Well- designed engineering controls can be highly effective
in protecting workers and will typically be independent of worker interactions to provide this high level of protection.
The basic types of engineering controls are:
Process controls which involve changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk.
Enclosure and/or isolation of emission source which keeps a selected hazard " physically" away from the worker and ventilation that strategically " adds" and "
removes" air in the work environment. Ventilation can remove or dilute an air contaminant if designed properly. The design of a ventilation system must match the
particular process and chemical or contaminant in use.
Employers may need to use multiple types of controls to prevent employee overexposure.
· Local exhaust ventilation is required where solids are handled as powders or crystals; even when particulates are relatively large, a certain proportion will be
powdered by mutual friction.
· If in spite of local exhaust an adverse concentration of the substance in air could occur, respiratory protection should be considered.
Such protection might consist of:
(a): particle dust respirators, if necessary, combined with an absorption cartridge;
(b): filter respirators with absorption cartridge or canister of the right type;
(c): fresh- air hoods or masks.
Air contaminants generated in the workplace possess varying " escape" velocities which, in turn, determine the " capture velocities" of fresh circulating air
required to effectively remove the contaminant.
Type of Contaminant: Air Speed:
direct spray, spray painting in shallow booths, drum filling, conveyer loading, crusher dusts, gas discharge (active generation into zone of rapid air motion) 1-2.5 m/s (200-500 f/min.)
grinding, abrasive blasting, tumbling, high speed wheel generated dusts (released at high initial velocity into zone of very high rapid air motion). 2.5-10 m/s (500-2000 f/min.)
Within each range the appropriate value depends on:
Lower end of the range Upper end of the range
1: Room air currents minimal or favourable to capture 1: Disturbing room air currents
2: Contaminants of low toxicity or of nuisance value only. 2: Contaminants of high toxicity
3: Intermittent, low production. 3: High production, heavy use
4: Large hood or large air mass in motion 4: Small hood-local control only
Simple theory shows that air velocity falls rapidly with distance away from the opening of a simple extraction pipe. Velocity generally decreases with the square of distance from the extraction point (in simple cases). Therefore the air speed at the extraction point should be adjusted, accordingly, after reference to distance from the contaminating source. The air velocity at the extraction fan, for example, should be a minimum of 4- 10 m/s (800- 2000 f/min) for extraction of crusher dusts generated 2 metres distant from the extraction point. Other mechanical considerations, producing performance deficits within the extraction apparatus, make it essential that theoretical air velocities are multiplied by factors of 10 or more when extraction systems are installed or used.



White lustrous crystals, pieces, granules or powder. Acidic reaction. Soluble in water. Readily hydrolyses in water to form acidic solutions. In contact with
atmospheric moisture or skin tissue forms irritant and corrosive sulfuric acid. Insoluble in alcohol. Hygroscopic. Available as commercial, technical, pure and BP
grades. Commercial may contain traces of free sulfuric acid. Decomposes when heated to 770 C




StateDivided solidMolecular Weight342.14
Melting Range (ºC)770ViscosityNot Applicable
Boiling Range (ºC)Not available.Solubility in water (g/L)Reacts
Flash Point (ºC)Not ApplicablepH (1% solution)Not available.
Decomposition Temp (ºC)770pH (as supplied)Not applicable
Autoignition Temp (ºC)Not ApplicableVapour Pressure (kPa)Not applicable
Upper Explosive Limit (%)Not applicableSpecific Gravity (water=1)2.710
Lower Explosive Limit (%)Not applicableRelative Vapour Density (air=1)Not applicable
Volatile Component (%vol)Not applicableEvaporation RateNot applicable


StateDivided solidMolecular Weight342.14
Melting Range (ºC)770ViscosityNot Applicable
Boiling Range (ºC)Not available.Solubility in water (g/L)Reacts
Flash Point (ºC)Not ApplicablepH (1% solution)Not available.
Decomposition Temp (ºC)770pH (as supplied)Not applicable
Autoignition Temp (ºC)Not ApplicableVapour Pressure (kPa)Not applicable
Upper Explosive Limit (%)Not applicableSpecific Gravity (water=1)2.710
Lower Explosive Limit (%)Not applicableRelative Vapour Density (air=1)Not applicable
Volatile Component (%vol)Not applicableEvaporation RateNot applicable



· Presence of incompatible materials.
· Product is considered stable.
· Hazardous polymerisation will not occur.

For incompatible materials - refer to Section 7 - Handling and Storage.





■ Although ingestion is not thought to produce harmful effects (as classified under EC Directives), the material may still be damaging to the health of the
individual, following ingestion, especially where pre- existing organ (e.g. liver, kidney) damage is evident. Present definitions of harmful or toxic substances are
generally based on doses producing mortality rather than those producing morbidity (disease, ill- health). Gastrointestinal tract discomfort may produce nausea and
vomiting. In an occupational setting however, ingestion of insignificant quantities is not thought to be cause for concern.
Sulfates are not well absorbed orally, but can cause diarrhoea.


■ If applied to the eyes, this material causes severe eye damage.


■ This material can cause inflammation of the skin oncontact in some persons.
The material may accentuate any pre- existing dermatitis condition.
Skin contact is not thought to have harmful health effects (as classified under EC Directives); the material may still produce health damage following entry through
wounds, lesions or abrasions.
Open cuts, abraded or irritated skin should not be exposed to this material.
Entry into the blood- stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use
of the material and ensure that any external damage is suitably protected.


■ The material can cause respiratory irritation in some persons. The body' s response to such irritation can cause further lung damage.
Persons with impaired respiratory function, airway diseases and conditions such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis, may incur further disability if excessive
concentrations of particulate are inhaled.
If prior damage to the circulatory or nervous systems has occurred or if kidney damage has been sustained, proper screenings should be conducted on individuals who
may be exposed to further risk if handling and use of the material result
in excessive exposures.
Not normally a hazard due to non- volatile nature of product.


■ Long- term exposure to respiratory irritants may result in disease of the airways involving difficult breathing and related systemic problems.
Strong evidence exists that this substance may cause irreversible mutations (though not lethal) even following a single exposure.
Laboratory (in vitro) and animal studies show, exposure to the material may result in a possible risk of irreversible effects, with the possibility of producing
Substance accumulation, in the human body, may occur and may cause some concern following repeated or long- term occupational exposure.
Long term exposure to high dust concentrations may cause changes in lung function i.e. pneumoconiosis; caused by particles less than 0.5 micron penetrating and
remaining in the lung. Prime symptom is breathlessness; lung shadows show on X- ray.
Exposure to large doses of aluminium has been connected with the degenerative brain disease Alzheimer' s Disease.


■ unless otherwise specified data extracted from RTECS - Register of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
■ Asthma- like symptoms may continue for months or even years after exposure to the material ceases. This may be due to a non- allergenic condition known as reactive
airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) which can occur following exposure to high levels of highly irritating compound. Key criteria for the diagnosis of RADS include
the absence of preceding respiratory disease, in a non- atopic individual, with abrupt onset of persistent asthma- like symptoms within minutes to hours of a
documented exposure to the irritant. A reversible airflow pattern, on spirometry, with the presence of moderate to severe bronchial hyperreactivity on methacholine
challenge testing and the lack of minimal lymphocytic inflammation, without eosinophilia, have also been included in the criteria for diagnosis of RADS. RADS (or
asthma) following an irritating inhalation is an infrequent disorder with rates related to the concentration of and duration of exposure to the irritating substance.
Industrial bronchitis, on the other hand, is a disorder that occurs as result of exposure due to high concentrations of irritating substance (often particulate in
nature) and is completely reversible after exposure ceases. The disorder is characterised by dyspnea, cough and mucus production.
Oral (mouse) LD50: 6207 mg/kg Eye (rabbit): 10 mg/24h SEVERE
Intraperitoneal (Mouse) LD50: 274 mg/kg
Oral (rat) TDLo: 10138 mg/kg/8D- C SULFURIC ACID:
Oral (rat) LD50: 2140 mg/kg Eye (rabbit): 1.38 mg SEVERE
Inhalation (rat) LC50: 510 mg/m³/2h Eye (rabbit): 5 mg/30sec SEVERE
Inhalation (human) TCLo: 3 mg/m³/24w
■ WARNING: For inhalation exposure ONLY: This substance has been classified by the IARC as Group 1: CARCINOGENIC TO HUMANS. Occupational exposures to strong inorganic acid mists of sulfuric acid:



Strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulfuric acid (see Acid mists)International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC MonographsGroup
Acid mists, strong inorganicInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC MonographsGroup1



■ DO NOT discharge into sewer or waterways.
■ for inorganic sulfates: Environmental fate: Data from tap water studies with human volunteers indicate that sulfates produce a laxative effect at concentrations of 1000 - 1200 mg/litre, but no increase in diarrhoea, dehydration or weight loss. The presence of sulfate in drinking- water can also result in a noticeable taste; the lowest taste threshold concentration for sulfate is approximately 250 mg/litre as the sodium salt. Sulfate may also contribute to the corrosion of distribution systems. No health- based guideline value for sulfate in drinking water is proposed. However, there is an increasing likelihood of complaints arising from a noticeable taste as concentrations in water increase above 500 mg/litre. Sulfates are removed from the air by both dry and wet deposition processes. Wet deposition processes including rain- out (a process that occurs within the clouds) and washout (removal by precipitation below the clouds) contribute to the removal of sulfate from the atmosphere. In soil, the inorganic sulfates can adsorb to soil particles or leach into surface water and groundwater. Sulfates can be taken up by plants and be incorporated into the parenchyma of the plant. Sulfate in water can also be reduced by sulfate bacteria (Thiobacilli) which use them as a source of energy. In anaerobic environments sulfate is biologically reduced to (hydrogen) sulfide by sulfate reducing bacteria, or incorporated into living organisms as source of sulfur, and thereby included in the sulfur cycle. Sodium sulfate is not reactive in aqueous solution at room temperature. Sodium sulfate will completely dissolve, ionise and distribute across the entire planetary " aquasphere" . Some sulfates may eventually be deposited, the majority of sulfates participate in the sulfur cycle in which natural and industrial sodium sulfate are not distinguishable The BCF of sodium sulfate is very low and therefore significant bioconcentration is not expected. Sodium and sulfate ions are essential to all living organisms and their intracellular and extracellular concentrations are actively regulated. However some plants (e.g. corn and Kochia Scoparia), are capable of accumulating sulfate to concentrations that are potentially toxic to ruminants. Ecotoxicity: For sulfate in general: Fish LC50: toxic from 7000 mg/l Bacteria: toxic from 2500 mg/l Algae were shown to be the most sensitive to sodium sulfate; EC50 120 h = 1, 900 mg/l. For invertebrates (Daphnia magna) the EC50 48 h = 4, 580 mg/l and fish appeared to be the least sensitive with a LC50 96h = 7, 960 mg/l for Pimephales promelas. Activated sludge showed a very low sensitivity to sodium sulfate. There was no effect up to 8 g/l. Sodium sulfate is not very toxic to terrestrial plants. Picea banksiana was the most sensitive species, an effect was seen at 1.4 g/l. Sediment dwelling organisms were not very sensitive either, with an LC50 96h = 660 mg/l for Trycorythus sp. Overall it can be concluded that sodium sulfate has no acute adverse effect on aquatic and sediment dwelling organisms. Toxicity to terrestrial plants is also low. No data were found for long term toxicity. The acute studies all show a toxicity of sodium sulfate higher than 100 mg/l, no bioaccumulation is expected, . For aluminium and its compounds and salts: Environmental fate: Aluminium occurs in the environment in the form of silicates, oxides and hydroxides, combined with other elements such as sodium, fluorine and arsenic complexes with organic matter. Acidification of soils releases aluminium as a transportable solution. Mobilisation of aluminium by acid rain results in aluminium becoming available for plant uptake. As an element, aluminum cannot be degraded in the environment, but may undergo various precipitation or ligand exchange reactions. Aluminum in compounds has only one oxidation state (+3), and would not undergo oxidation- reduction reactions under environmental conditions. Aluminum can be complexed by various ligands present in the environment (e.g., fulvic and humic acids). The solubility of aluminum in the environment will depend on the ligands present and the pH. The trivalent aluminum ion is surrounded by six water molecules in solution. The hydrated aluminum ion, [Al(H2O)6]3+, undergoes hydrolysis, in which a stepwise deprotonation of the coordinated water ligands forms bound hydroxide ligands (e.g., [Al(H2O)5(OH)]2+, [Al(H2O)4(OH)2]+). The speciation of aluminum in water is pH dependent. The hydrated trivalent aluminum ion is the predominant form at pH levels below 4. Between pH 5 and 6, the predominant hydrolysis products are Al(OH)2+ and Al(OH)2+, while the solid Al(OH)3 is most prevalent between pH 5.2 and 8.8. The soluble species Al(OH)4- is the predominant species above pH 9, and is the only species present above pH 10. Polymeric aluminum hydroxides appear between pH 4.7 and 10.5, and increase in size until they are transformed into colloidal particles of amorphous Al(OH)3, which crystallise to gibbsite in acid waters. Polymerisation is affected by the presence of dissolved silica; when enough silica is present, aluminum is precipitated as poorly crystallised clay mineral species. Hydroxyaluminum compounds are considered amphoteric (e.g., they can act as both acids and bases in solution). Because of this property, aluminum hydroxides can act as buffers and resist pH changes within the narrow pH range of 4- 5. Monomeric aluminum compounds, typified by aluminum fluoride, chloride, and sulfate, are considered reactive or labile compounds, whereas polymeric aluminum species react much more slowly in the environment. Aluminum has a stronger attraction for fluoride in an acidic environment compared to other inorganic ligand. The adsorption of aluminum onto clay surfaces can be a significant factor in controlling aluminum mobility in the environment, and these adsorption reactions, measured in one study at pH 3.0- 4.1, have been observed to be very rapid. However, clays may act either as a sink or a source for soluble aluminum depending on the degree of aluminum saturation on the clay surface. Within the pH range of 5- 6, aluminum complexes with phosphate and is removed from solution. Because phosphate is a necessary nutrient in ecological systems, this immobilization of both aluminum and phosphate may result in depleted nutrient states in surface water. Plant species and cultivars of the same species differ considerably in their ability to take up and translocate aluminum to above- ground parts. Tea leaves may contain very high concentrations of aluminum, >5, 000 mg/kg in old leaves. Other plants that may contain high levels of aluminum include Lycopodium (Lycopodiaceae), a few ferns, Symplocos (Symplocaceae), and Orites (Proteaceae). Aluminum is often taken up and concentrated in root tissue. In sub- alpine ecosystems, the large root biomass of the Douglas fir, Abies amabilis, takes up aluminum and immobilizes it, preventing large accumulation in above- ground tissue. It is unclear to what extent aluminum is taken up into root food crops and leafy vegetables. An uptake factor (concentration of aluminum in the plant/concentration of aluminum in soil) of 0.004 for leafy vegetables and 0.00065 for fruits and tubers has been reported, but the pH and plant species from which these uptake factors were derived are unclear. Based upon these values, however, it is clear that aluminum is not taken up in plants from soil, but is instead biodiluted. Aluminum concentrations in rainbow trout from an alum- treated lake, an untreated lake, and a hatchery were highest in gill tissue and lowest in muscle. Aluminum residue analyses in brook trout have shown that whole- body aluminum content decreases as the fish advance from larvae to juveniles. These results imply that the aging larvae begin to decrease their rate of aluminum uptake, to eliminate aluminum at a rate that exceeds uptake, or to maintain approximately the same amount of aluminum while the body mass increases. The decline in whole- body aluminum residues in juvenile brook trout may be related to growth and dilution by edible muscle tissue that accumulated less aluminum than did the other tissues. The greatest fraction of the gill- associated aluminum was not sorbed to the gill tissue, but to the gill mucus. It is thought that mucus appears to retard aluminum transport from solution to the membrane surface, thus delaying the acute biological response of the fish. It has been reported that concentrations of aluminum in whole- body tissue of the Atlantic salmon exposed to high concentrations of aluminum ranging from 3 ug/g (for fish exposed to 33 ug/L) to 96 ug/g (for fish exposed to 264 ug/L) at pH 5.5. After 60 days of exposure, BCFs ranged from 76 to 190 and were directly related to the aluminum exposure concentration. In acidic waters (pH 4.6- 5.3) with low concentrations of calcium (0.5- 1.5 mg Ca/L), labile aluminum between 25 and 75 ug/L is toxic. Because aluminum is toxic to many aquatic species, it is not bioaccumulated to a significant degree (BCF <300) in most fish and shellfish; therefore, consumption of contaminated fish does not appear to be a significant source of aluminum exposure in humans. Bioconcentration of aluminum has also been reported for several aquatic invertebrate species. BCF values ranging from 0.13 to 0.5 in the whole- body were reported for the snail. Bioconcentration of aluminum has also been reported for aquatic insects. Ecotoxicity: Freshwater species pH >6.5 Fish: Acute LC50 (48- 96 h) 5 spp: 0.6 (Salmo salar) - 106 mg/L; Chronic NOEC (8- 28 d): 7 spp, NOEC, 0.034- 7.1 mg/L. The lowest measured chronic figure was an 8- d LC50 of 0.17 mg/L for Micropterus sp. Amphibian: Acute LC50 (4 d): Bufo americanus, 0.86- 1.66 mg/L; Chronic LC50 (8- d) 2.28 mg/L Crustaceans LC50 (48 h): 1 sp 2.3- 36 9 mg/L; Chronic NOEC (7- 28 d) 3 spp, 0.136- 1.72 mg/L Algae EC50 (96 h): population growth, 0.46- 0.57 mg/L; 2 spp, chronic NOEC, 0.8- 2.0 mg/L Freshwater species pH <6.5 (all between pH 4.5 and 6.0) Fish LC50 (24- 96 h): 4 spp, 0.015 (S. trutta) - 4.2 mg/L; chronic data on Salmo trutta, LC50 (21- 42 d) 0.015- 0.105 mg/L Amphibians LC50 (4- 5 d): 2 spp, 0.540- 2.670 m/L (absolute range 0.40- 5.2 mg/L) Alga: 1 sp NOEC growth 2.0 mg/L Among freshwater aquatic plants, single- celled plants are generally the most sensitive to aluminium. Fish are generally more sensitive to aluminium than aquatic invertebrates. Aluminium is a gill toxicant to fish, causing both ionoregulatory and respiratory effects. The bioavailability and toxicity of aluminium is generally greatest in acid solutions. Aluminium in acid habitats has been observed to be toxic to fish and phytoplankton. Aluminium is generally more toxic over the pH range, with a maximum toxicity occurring around pH The inorganic single unit aluminium species (Al(OH)2 +) is thought to be the most toxic. Under very acid conditions, the toxic effects of the high H+ concentration appear to be more important than the effects of low concentrations of aluminium; at approximately neutral pH values, the toxicity of aluminium is greatly reduced. The solubility of aluminium is also enhanced under alkaline conditions, due to its amphoteric character, and some researchers found that the acute toxicity of aluminium increased from pH 7 to pH 9. However, the opposite relationship was found in other studies. The uptake and toxicity of aluminium in freshwater organisms generally decreases with increasing water hardness under acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Complexing agents such as fluoride, citrate and humic substances reduce the availability of aluminium to organisms, resulting in lower toxicity. Silicon can also reduce aluminium toxicity to fish. Drinking Water Standards: aluminium: 200 ug/l (UK max.) 200 ug/l (WHO guideline) chloride: 400 mg/l (UK max.) 250 mg/l (WHO guideline) fluoride: 1.5 mg/l (UK max.) 1.5 mg/l (WHO guideline) nitrate: 50 mg/l (UK max.) 50 mg/l (WHO guideline) sulfate: 250 mg/l (UK max.) Soil Guideline: none available. Air Quality Standards: none available. Fish LC50(12- 96 h): 100 mg/L SULFURIC ACID:
■ Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water courses. Sulfuric acid is soluble in water and remains indefinitely in the environment as sulfate. Large discharges may contribute to the acidification of water and be fatal to aquatic life and soil micro- organisms. Large discharges may also contribute to the acidification of effluent treatment systems and injure sewage treatment organisms. In water, sulfuric acid dissociates, and the sulfate anion may combine with other cations. In soil, the ions from sulfuric acid can adsorb to soil particles or leach into surface water and groundwater. Sulfates can be taken up by plants and be incorporated into the parenchyma of the plant. The ions (sulfate, hydrogen) can adsorb to soil particles or be converted to gases. Anaerobic bacteria in sediments and soil can reduce sulfate to sulfur and hydrogen sulfide. Sulfates, including sulfuric acid, are removed from the air by both dry and wet deposition processes. Wet deposition processes including rain- out (a process that occurs within the clouds) and washout (removal by precipitation below the clouds) contribute to the removal of sulfate from the atmosphere. In the stratosphere, sulfuric acid aerosols have lifetimes of about 14 and 2.4 days at altitudes of 15 and 20 km, respectively. At cloud level, the residence time is about 6 days, with shorter residence times in surface air. Sulfuric acid is soluble in water and remains indefinitely in the environment as sulfate. Large discharges may contribute to the acidification of water and be fatal to aquatic life and soil micro- organisms. Large discharges may contribute to the acidification of effluent treatment systems and injure sewage treatment organisms. [ICI UK]


IngredientPersistence: Water/SoilPersistence: AirBioaccumulationMobility
aluminium sulfateHIGHNo Data AvailableLOWHIGH
sulfuric acidNo Data AvailableNo Data AvailableLOW



Name /     EHS  TRN  A1a  A1b  A1   A2   B1   B2   C1   C2   C3   D1   D2   D3   E1   E2   E3
Cas No /
_________  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___  ___
Aluminium  220  111  Ino       2    Ino  3    1    1    (0)  (3)  (2)  (3)            D    3
 sulphate  5         rg             rg
- 01- 3 /

EHS=EHS Number (EHS=GESAMP Working Group on the Evaluation of the Hazards of Harmful Substances Carried by Ships) NRT=Net Register Tonnage, A1a=Bioaccumulation log Pow, A1b=Bioaccumulation BCF, A1=Bioaccumulation, A2=Biodegradation, B1=Acuteaquatic toxicity LC/ECIC50 (mg/l), B2=Chronic aquatic toxicity NOEC (mg/l), C1=Acute mammalian oral toxicity LD50 (mg/kg), C2=Acutemammalian dermal toxicity LD50 (mg/kg), C3=Acute mammalian inhalation toxicity LC50 (mg/kg), D1=Skin irritation & corrosion, D2=Eye irritation& corrosion, D3=Long-term health effects, E1=Tainting, E2=Physical effects on wildlife & benthic habitats, E3=Interference with coastal amenities,
For column A2: R=Readily biodegradable, NR=Not readily biodegradable.
For column D3: C=Carcinogen, M=Mutagenic, R=Reprotoxic, S=Sensitising, A=Aspiration hazard, T=Target organ systemic toxicity, L=Lunginjury, N=Neurotoxic, I=Immunotoxic.
For column E1: NT=Not tainting (tested), T=Tainting test positive.
For column E2: Fp=Persistent floater, F=Floater, S=Sinking substances.
The numerical scales start from 0 (no hazard), while higher numbers reflect increasing hazard.
(GESAMP/EHS Composite List of Hazard Profiles - Hazard evaluation of substances transported by ships)


· Containers may still present a chemical hazard/ danger when empty.
· Return to supplier for reuse/ recycling if possible.
· If container can not be cleaned sufficiently well to ensure that residuals do not remain or if the container cannot be used to store the same product, then puncture containers, to prevent re-use, and bury at an authorised landfill.
· Where possible retain label warnings and MSDS and observe all notices pertaining to the product.
Legislation addressing waste disposal requirements may differ by country, state and/ or territory. Each user must refer to laws operating in their area. In some areas, certain wastes must be tracked.
A Hierarchy of Controls seems to be common - the user should investigate:
· Reduction
· Reuse
· Recycling
· Disposal (if all else fails)
This material may be recycled if unused, or if it has not been contaminated so as to make it unsuitable for its intended use. Shelf life considerations should also be applied in making decisions of this type. Note that properties of a material may change in use, and recycling or reuse may not always be appropriate.
· DO NOT allow wash water from cleaning or process equipment to enter drains.
· It may be necessary to collect all wash water for treatment before disposal.
· In all cases disposal to sewer may be subject to local laws and regulations and these should be considered first.
· Where in doubt contact the responsible authority.
For small quantities:
· Neutralise an aqueous solution of the material.
· Filter solids for disposal to approved land fill.
· Flush solution to sewer (subject to local regulation)
· Heat and fumes evolved during reaction may be controlled by rate of addition.
· Recycle wherever possible or consult manufacturer for recycling options.
· Consult State Land Waste Management Authority for disposal.
· Bury residue in an authorised landfill.
· Recycle containers if possible, or dispose of in an authorised landfill.



None (ADG7)


GESAMP hazard profiles for this material can be found in section 12 of the MSDS.




aluminium sulfate (CAS: 10043-01-3) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","Australia Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) Substances that may be used as active ingredients in Listed medicines","GESAMP/EHS Composite List - GESAMP Hazard Profiles","IMO IBC Code Chapter 17: Summary of minimum requirements","IMO MARPOL 73/78 (Annex II) - List of Other Liquid Substances","International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) - High Production Volume List"

Regulations for ingredients

sulfuric acid (CAS: 7664-93-9) is found on the following regulatory lists;

"Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 9 Precursor substances - Part 2","Australia Exposure Standards","Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)","Australia Illicit Drug Reagents/Essential Chemicals - Category III","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","Australia National Pollutant Inventory","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix E (Part 2)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix F (Part 3)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 6","GESAMP/EHS Composite List - GESAMP Hazard Profiles","IMO IBC Code Chapter 17: Summary of minimum requirements","IMO MARPOL 73/78 (Annex II) - List of Noxious Liquid Substances Carried in Bulk","International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC Monographs","International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations","International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations - Prohibited List","International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) - High Production Volume List","United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances - Table II","United Nations List of Precursors and Chemicals Frequently used in the Illicit Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Under International Control (Red List) - Table II"



Paul Milward-Bason
17 Grandview Parade
Moolap 3221
Victoria Australia



The following table displays the version number of and date on which each section was last changed.

Section Name        Version  Date             Section Name        Version  Date             Section Name        Version  Date
Ingredients         6        13- Nov- 2009    Spills (minor)      4        10- Oct- 2007    Instability         5        24- May- 2009
Advice to Doctor    4        10- Oct- 2007    Handling Procedure  5        24- May- 2009    Acute Health (eye)  5        24- May- 2009
First Aid (eye)     5        24- May- 2009    Storage (storage    6        13- Nov- 2009    Acute Health        5        24- May- 2009
                                              incompatibility)                              (inhaled)
First Aid           5        24- May- 2009    Storage (suitable   5        24- May- 2009    Acute Health        5        24- May- 2009
(inhaled)                                     container)                                    (skin)
First Aid (skin)    5        24- May- 2009    Engineering         4        10- Oct- 2007    Acute Health        4        10- Oct- 2007
                                              Control                                       (swallowed)
First Aid           4        10- Oct- 2007    Exposure Standard   6        13- Nov- 2009    Chronic Health      6        13- Nov- 2009
Fire Fighter        4        10- Oct- 2007    Personal            4        10- Oct- 2007    Toxicity and        5        24- May- 2009
(extinguishing                                Protection (eye)                              Irritation (Other)
Fire Fighter (fire  4        10- Oct- 2007    Personal            4        10- Oct- 2007    Toxicity and        5        24- May- 2009
fighting)                                     Protection                                    Irritation
                                              (hands/feet)                                  (Toxicity Figure)
Fire Fighter (fire  4        10- Oct- 2007    Personal            5        24- May- 2009    Environmental       5        24- May- 2009
incompatibility)                              Protection (other)
Fire Fighter        5        24- May- 2009    Appearance          4        10- Oct- 2007    Disposal            5        24- May- 2009
Spills (major)      4        10- Oct- 2007    Physical            4        10- Oct- 2007


■ Classification of the preparation and its individual components has drawn on official and authoritative sources as well as independent review by the Chemwatch Classification committee using available literature references.
A list of reference resources used to assist the committee may be found at:


■ The (M)SDS is a Hazard Communication tool and should be used to assist in the Risk Assessment. Many factors determine whether the reported Hazards are Risks in the workplace or other settings. Risks may be determined by reference to Exposures Scenarios. Scale of use, frequency of use and current or available engineering controls must be considered.



This document is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, review or
criticism, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written
permission from CHEMWATCH. TEL (+61 3) 9572 4700.


Issue Date: 13-Nov-2009

Print Date: 17-Feb-2012



This is the end of the MSDS.